What are the three phases of prenatal development?
What are the key developments in the germinal stage and when does it occur?
implantation in uterine lining
development of a placenta
first two weeks after conception
What are the key developments in the embryonic stage and when does this stage occur?
most vital organs begin to form
heart, spine and brain emerge as cell divisions become more specialized
1 in long embryo has fingers, toes, ect and looks discernibly human
most miscarriages and structural defects occur during this time
What are the key developments in the fetal stage and when does this stage occur?
rapid bodily growth, including muscles and bones, allowing for physical movement
visual and auditory senses
periods of sleep and wakefulness
two months through birth
What is a cross-sectional study?
a research design in which investigators compare groups of subjects of differing age who are observed at a single point in time.
What is a longitudinal study?
a study in which investigators observe one group of subjects over a long period of time.
What is habituation?
a gradual reduction in the strength of a response when a stimulus event is presented repeatedly.
What are the causes and symptoms of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)?
heavy drinking by mother during pregnancy
delayed motor and mental development
What methodology did Thomas and Chess use in studying the temperament of babies?
Conducted a longitudinal study that examined development of temperament and its effect on long term stability over time.
What are the three basic temperaments and percentages of those temperaments in Thomas and Chess' study?
easy children (40%): happy, regular in sleep and eating, adaptable and not readily upset
slow to warm up children (15%): less cheery, less regular in sleep and eating, slower in adapting to change
difficult children (10%): glum, erratic in sleep and eating, resistant to change, relatively irritable.
What method did Jerome Kagan et al use in studying the effects of infant temperament on development?
Direct observation of infants found that 15-20% of infants display inhibited temperament and 25-30% display uninhibited temperament.
In Kagan's study, what was the effect of temperament 20 years later?
20 years later, original subjects had fMRI to measure reactions in amygdala, and inhibited temperament subjects had stronger emotional reactions in response to novel faces/stimuli, upholding Kagan's original research.
What is "attachment" to a development psychologist?
the close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers.
What are signs of attachment?
Describe Harry Harlow's research with monkeys.
removed monkeys from mothers at birth with two types of substitute mothers, one made of terrycloth who could provide contact comfort, other made of wire.
Half fed from bottle attached to wire mother, and half fed from bottle attached to cloth mother.
attachment tested by frightening monkeys and seeing which mother they went to.
What were the key findings of Harlow's research?
Monkeys went to cloth mothers, even though they were not fed by them, refuting idea of simple reinforcement as explanation for attachment.
What is contact comfort?
In Harlow's research, it meant having a soft, comforting object to cling to, as opposed to a hard wire object for the monkeys. Evokes feelings of softness, maternal comfort.
What are the signs of attachment?
emerge at about 6-8 months, pronounced preference for mother's/caregiver's company, protest when separated, display separation anxiety.
What affects the type of attachment that emerges between an infant and its mother?
Maternal behaviors appear to have considerable influence over type of attachment that emerges, sensitiveness and responsiveness more likely to form secure attachment. Infant temperament may also have an effect on attachment.
What are the characteristics of children who have secure attachments?
infants use their mothers as a secure base from which to venture out and explore the world, play comfortably with their mother present, become visibly upset when she leaves and is comforted by her return.
What are the characteristics of children who have anxious or resistant attachment?
appear anxious when mother is near and protest excessively when she leaves, but not particularly comforted when she returns.
What are the characteristics of children who have avoidant attachment?
seek little contact with their mothers and are often not distressed when she leaves.
What are the characteristics of children who have disorganized-disoriented attachment?
appear confused about whether or not they should approach or avoid their mother and are especially insecure.
What are the long-term consequences of the secure-attachment style?
good model for long term relationships, children tend to become resilient, competent toddlers with high self-esteem, tend to be more curious, persistent, self-reliant, better peer relations, leadership, more positive emotions, more advanced cognitive dev.
What is a stage?
a developmental period during which characteristic patterns of behavior are exhibited and certain capacities become established.
What assumptions are made about movement through the stages?
individuals must progress through specified stages in a particular order because each stage builds on the previous stage.
progress through these stages is strongly related to age
development is marked by major discontinuities that usher in dramatic transitions in behavior.
What is a psychosocial crisis and what its its resolution?
involves a struggle between two opposing tendencies, such as trust v. mistrust, initiative v. guilt, and resolution is development of a personality trait.
What are the 8 stages of Erickson's theory?
trust v. mistrust (is my world predictive and supportive)
autonomy v. shame and doubt (can I do things myself?)
initiative v. guilt (am I good or bad?)
industry v. inferiority (Am I competent? Worthless?)
identity v. confusion (Who am I? Where am I going?)
intimacy v. isolation (share life with other or live alone?)
generativity v. self-absorption (will I produce something of real value?)
integrity v. dispair (have I lived a full life?)
What does research say about Erickson's theory?
accounts for both continuity and transition in personality development
dependent upon illustrative case studies which are open to varied interpretation.
What is Piaget's theory of cognitive development?
a four-stage theory that are characterized by fundamentally different thought processes.
sensorimotor period (birth to 2)
preoperational period (2-7)
concrete operational period (7-11)
formal operational period (11 onward)
What is the cognitive process of assimilation?
interpreting new experiences in terms of existing mental structures without changing them.
What is the cognitive process of accommodation?
changing existing mental structures to explain new experiences.
What is a schema, and what is it used for?
an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or events; used to process information, ie a child calling all four legged animals puppies, then accommodating to account for differences in animals.
What is object permanence?
develops when a child recognizes that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible.
What are the characteristics of Piaget's sensorimotor stage?
circular reactions-discovering pleasurable responses and making them happen over and over again.
coordinating sensory input into motor reactions.
by end can use mental symbols to represent objects
acquisition of object permanence.
What are the characteristics of the preoperational stage?
gradual improvement of use of mental images
unable to solve conservation problems
centration-tendency to focus on just one aspect of a problem
irreversability-unable to envison undoing an action
egocentrism-limited ability to share another person's viewpoint.
animism-attributing living qualities to inanimate objects
What is conservation?
Piaget's term for the awareness that physical quantities remain constant in spite of changes in their shape or appearance.
What does Piaget's conservation test reveal about cognitive function?
it reveals that children in the preoperational stage cannot solve conservation problems because of basic flaws in preoperational thinking, such as centration, irreversability and egocentrism.
What does concrete thinking refer to?
In Concrete operational stage, it means that children can only solve problems based upon tangible objects and actual events.
What is abstract thinking?
An ability that develops in Piaget's formal operational period that allows children to think about hypothetical possiblities and concepts, including love, justice, ect.
What is the preconventional level of moral reasoning in Kohlberg's model?
Acts are wrong because they are punished and right if they lead to positive outcomes.
What is the conventional level of moral reasoning in Kohlberg's model?
preceding past morality in terms of punishment and reward and realizing rule's roles in social order. Begin to internalize and create own "rules," view them as rigid guidelines.
What is the post conventional level in Kohlberg's model?
working on a personal code of ethics, some flexibility in moral thinking, ie applauding newspaper reporter who goes to jail instead of revealing sources.
What is a gender stereotype?
widely held beliefs about females' and males' abilities, personality traits, and social behavior
What is the difference between sex and gender?
Sex is said to refer to the biologically based category of female and male while gender refers to culturally constructed distinctions between femininity and masculinity. Sex is to male as gender is to masculine.
What does the research suggest about gender differences in cognitive abilities and social behavior?
Research suggests that differences in cognitive ability are marginal and perhaps statistically insignificant, but differences do exist in social behavior, especially aggression and sexual activity.
What role do hormones play in gender differences?
play a key role in sexual development, and prenatally may shape gender differences in humans.
How do male and female brains differ?
males tend to exhibit more cerebral specialization than females/rely more on left hem. in verbal processing, right in spatial
size of corpus callosum-suggest females larger, allowing for interhemispheric transfer
What are environmental explanations of gender differences?
operant conditioning of "gender appropriate" behavior
How is habituation used to study infant abilities?
"boring babies" with same stimulus over and over again, until they get bored, ie how long they look at old stimulus compared with how much they look at and discriminate new stimulus
What reflexes are available in very young infants?
physical (sucking, grasping, stepping, startle)
imitate facial expressions
fixate on eyes and can track gaze
What are three kinds of infant abilities? What is the evidence for each of these?
pattern discrimination, face perception
learning and memory-Rovee Collier Mobile study
emotion expressiveness, responsiveness-observation of reflexes
What emotions are found in babies at birth?
What emotions appear between 2-6 months?
What is a teratogen, and what are some common teratogens?
Chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus and cause harm, such as irradiation, rubella, cortisone, and alcohol.
What is the consequence of deprivation and what are some examples of deprivation?
retards development, can include poor nutrition and little stimulation.
What is a visual cliff?
psychological apparatus for studying depth perception.
What does research with the visual cliff suggest about the role of experience on development?
babies 8 1/2 months and older won't cross cliff due to experience with being hurt or because of fear, infants depth perception changes by experiences in crawling.
What is plasticity?
the degree to which and the conditions under which brain development is open to change and open to development. Brain circuitry "filled in" after birth.
Is more stimulation always a good thing, and what is the evidence for or against it?
not always a good thing, can have problems prioritizing, with structure, evidence is premature babies who are subject to high stimulus environment of intensive care unit. More hypersensitive and overly stimulated.
What is the difference between development in stages versus continuous development?
Continuous development is gradual, whereas development in stages begins in limited stages and progresses to next stage (caterpillar/cocoon/butterfly)
Janet Werker studied the capacity of infants to detect speech sounds. What was her methodology? What are her findings?
record non-native speech
teach sound changes --> toys
play non-native speech changes
babies turn at 8 months, but lose ability at 1 yr.
babies born with ability to learn any language
What is universal adaptability?
The ability of all infants to detect all speech sounds.
What are the stages of infant language development as explained during lecture?
babbling-comes to sound like native language
one word stage-babies start by saying what they can pronouce
two-word stage-functional words omitted
increasing syntatic competence
What is the evidence for innate language abilities?
teaching has little effect
adults are poor tutors and models
children are creative
non-hearing children create own language
What is theory of mind?
ability to reason about other people's behavior using their mental states.
What is a belief?
a mental representation aimed at the truth but capable of being false
What is required for a child to understand the mind of the other?
the difference between the mind and other entities in the world
the contents of the mind can misrepresent those in the external world
the way it relates to other beliefs, desires and actions.
What is the false beliefs test?
test administered to children to determine whether or not they can determine someone else's point of view.
At what age does a child gain the cognitive ability to take Max's point of view--to understand differences between what the child knows and what someone else (Max) might know?
around age 4
At what age to children begin to deliberately deceive others?
around age 4
What is representational change?
abandonment of a copy theory of the mind for a representational one, one that represents the world.
When do children learn to mistrust an unreliable informant?
About age 4
What is the difference between a three year old and four year old in their response to an inaccurate informant?
4 year olds significantly above chance in all circumstances
three year olds unforgiving of one error, only above chance in 100% right/wrong circumstances.
What drives social development?
early appearing abilities
detect emotional expressions from others
desire for security
awareness of self, others
What is social referencing?
using other's emotions to understand unfamiliar or ambiguous situations.
What is self-recognition?
awareness of self as distinctive, separate
How does a researcher test for self-recognition?
use of the rouge test
What is the rouge test?
a dab of rouge and a mirror, by 18-20 months, child dabs at nose that has rouge on it.
At what age does self-recognition occur?
18-24 mos across cultures.
What are cognitive and social capacites that are shared with other species?
What is the symbolic understanding and why is it important?
something that represents something else
allows for mathematics, government, money, education, science, religion
mastery requires years of interaction with mature users, a culture.
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