in hearing, the process of building a complex tone by starting with the fundamental frequency and adding pure tone harmonics
in the case of a repeating sound wave, such as the sine wave of a pure tone, represents the pressure difference between atmospheric pressure and the maximum pressure of the wave
apex of the cochlea
the end of the basilar membrane farthest from the middle ear
the buildup of sound at the beginning of a tone
a curve that indicates the sound pressure level at threshold for frequencies across the audible spectrum
the canal through which air vibrations travel from the environment to the tympanic membrane
occurs when presentation of one sound decreases a listener's ability to hear another sound
auditory receiving area
the area of the cortex, located in the temporal lobe, that is the primary receiving area for hearing.
auditory response area
the psychophysically measured area that defines the frequencies and sound pressure levels over which hearing functions. This area extends between the audibility curve and the curve for the threshold of feeling
base of the cochlea
the part of the basilar membrane nearest the middle ear
a membrane that stretches the length of the cochlea and controls the vibration of the cochlear partition
auditory area in the temporal lobe that receives signals from the core area and sends signals from the core area and sends signals to the parabelt area
central pitch processor
a hypothetical central mechanism that analyzes the pattern of a tone's harmonics and selects the fundamental frequency that is most likely to have been part of that pattern. it has been proposed that this mechanism is involved in our perception of periodicity pitch
the frequency at which a neuron in the auditory system has its lowest threshold
fine hairs that protrude from the inner and outer hair cells of the auditory system. bending the cilia of the inner hair cells leads to transduction
the snail shaped, liquid filled structure that contains the structures of the inner ear, the most important of which are the basilar membrane, the tectorial membrane, and the hair cells
a device in which electrodes are inserted into the cochlea to create hearing by electrically stimulating the auditory nerve fibers. this device is used to restore hearing in people who have lost their hearing because of damaged hair cells.
the nucleus where nerve fibers from the cochlea first synapse.
a partition in the cochlea, extending almost its full length, that separates the scala tympani and the scala vestibuli. the organ of corti, which contains the hair cells, is part of the cochlear partition
the area in the temporal lobe that includes the primary auditory cortex and some nearby areas. signals from this area are transmitted to the belt area of auditory cortex
the decrease in the sound signal that occurs at the end of a tone
a unit that indicates the presence of a tone relative to a reference pressure: dB= 20 log (p/po) where p is the pressure of tone and po is the reference pressure
another term for the tympanic membrane, the membrane located at the end of the auditory canal that vibrates in response to sound
effect of the missing fundamental
removing the fundamental frequency and other lower harmonies from a musical tone does not change the tone's pitch
envelope of the traveling wave
a curve that indicates the maximum displacement at each point along the basilar membrane caused by a traveling wave
equal loudness curve
a curve that indicates the sound pressure levels that result in a perception of the same loudness at frequencies across the audible spectrum
a mathematical technique that analyze complex periodic waveforms into a number of sine-wave components
in the case of a sound wave that repeats itself, such as the sine wave of a pure tone, the number of times per second that the wave repeats itself
a plot that indicates the amplitudes of the various harmonics that make up a complex tone. each harmonic is indicated by a line that is positioned along the frequency axis, with the height of the line indicating the amplitude of the harmonic.
frequency tuning curve
curve relating frequency and the threshold intensity for activating an auditory neuron
usually the lowest frequency in the fourier system of a complex tone. also called the first harmonic. the tone's other components, called higher harmonics have frequencies that are multiples of this.
neuron in the cochlea that contains small hairs, or cilia, that are displaced by vibration of the basilar membrane fluids inside the inner ear. there are two kinds, inner and outer.
fourier components of a complex tone with frequencies that are multiple of the fundamental frequency
the experience of perceiving sound
the unit for designating the frequency of a tone. one = one cycle per second.
processing signals through a sequence of areas. this occurs in the visual system as signals are transmitted from the LGN to primary visual receiving area, and then to higher areas. it occurs in the auditory system as signals are transmitted from the core to the belt to the parabelt regions of the cortex
the second of the three ossicles of the middle ear`
a nucleus in the hearing system along the pathway from the cochlea to the auditory cortex. receives input from the superior olivary nucleus.
the innermost division of the ear, containing the cochlea and the receptors for hearing
inner hair cells
auditory receptor cell in the ear that is primarily responsible for auditory transduction and the perception of pitch
short for sound level indicates the decibels or sound pressure of a sound stimulus
the quality of sound that ranges from soft to loud. for a tone of a particular frequency, loudness usually increases with increasing decibles.
the first of the ossicles of the middle ear. receives vibrations from the tympanic membrane and transmits these vibrations to the incus.
medical geniculate nucleus
an auditory nucleus in the thalamus that is part of the pathway from the cochlea to the auditory cortex. receives input from the inferior colliculus and transmits signals to the auditory cortex
the small air-filled space between the auditory canal and the cochlea that contains the ossicles
muscles attached to the ossicles in the middle ear. the smallest skeletal muscles in the body, they contract in response to very intense sounds and dampen the vibrations of the ossicles
a response to sound of the outer hair cells in which these cells move. the cells tilt and get slightly longer, which increases basilar membrane vibration and therefore amplifies the response of the inner hair cells.
tones that have frequencies that are binary multiples of each other (2,4, etc). for example an 800 hz tone is 1 octave above 400 hz tone
organ of corti
the major structure of the cochlear partition, containing the basilar membrane, the tectorial membrane and the receptors for hearing
three small bones in the middle ear that transmit vibrations from the outer to the inner ear
the pinna and the external auditory meatus
outer hair cells
auditory receptor cell in the inner ear that amplify the response of the inner hair cells.
a small, membrane-covered hold in the cochlea that receives vibrations from the stapes.
auditory area in the temporal lobe that receives signals from the belt area
the constancy of a complex tone's pitch when the fundamental frequency and other lower harmonics are eliminated
firing of auditory neurons in synchrony with the phase of an auditory stimulus
the part of the ear that is visible on the outside of the head
the quality of sound, ranging from low to high, that is most closely associated with the frequency of tone
place theory of hearing
the proposal that the frequency of a sound is indicated by the place along the organ of corti at which nerve firing is highest. modern based on bekesy's traveling wave theory of hearing.
psychophysical tuning curve
a function that indicates the intensity of masking tones of different frequencies that cause a low-intensity pure tone to become just barely detectable
a tone with pressure changes that can be described by a single sine wave
a mechanism that enhances the intensity of certain frequencies because of the reflection of sound waves in a closed tube. in the auditory canal, enhances frequencies between about 2,000 hz and 5,000 hz
the frequency that is most strongly enhanced by resonance. of a closed tube is determined by the length of the tube.
the perceptual experience of hearing. the physical stimulus for hearing
the pressure of a sound stimulus expressed in decibels
sound pressure level
a designation used to indicate that the reference pressure used for calculating a tone's decibel rating is set at 20 micropascals. near the threshold in the most sensitive frequency range for hearing
pattern of pressure changes in a medium. most of the sounds we hear are due to pressure changes in the air, although sound can be transmitted through water and solids as well
the last of the three ossicles in the middle ear. it receives vibrations from the incus and transmits these vibrations to the oval window of the inner ear.
structure below the cerebral cortex. for ex. the superior colliculus one in the visual system. cochlear nucleus and superior olivary nucleus among these in the auditory system.
superior olivary nucleus
a nucleus along the auditory pathway from the cochlea to the auditory cortex. receives inputs from the cochlear nucleus.
a membrane that stretches the length of the cochlea and is located directly over the hair cells. vibrations of the cochlear partition cause this to bend the hair cells by rubbing against them
the quality that distinguishes between two tones that sound different even though they have the same loudness, pitch and duration. differences in this are illustrated by the sounds made by different musical instruments.
the perceptual similarity of notes separated by one or more octaves
the increase in pitch that occurs are frequency is increased
an ordered map of frequencies created by the responding of neurons within structures in the auditory system. there is one of neurons along the length of the cochlea, with neurons at the apex responding best to low frequencies and neurons at the base responding best to high frequencies
in the auditory system, vibration of the basilar membrane in which the peak of the vibration travels from the base of the membrane to its apex
a membrane at the end of the auditory canal that vibrates in response to vibrations of the air and transmits these vibrations to the ossicles in the middle ear.
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