· A model for Journalism and speech that tolerates little criticism of government or public dissent; it holds that the general public needs guidance from an elite and educated ruling class.
· a model for journalism and speech that places control in the hands of an enlightened government, which speaks for ordinary citizens and workers in order to serve the common goals of the state.
· a model for journalism and speech, influenced by the libertarian model, that encourages the free flow of information to citizens so they can make wise decisions regarding political and social issues.
· The notion that the press operates as an unofficial branch of government, monitoring the legislative, judicial, and executive branches for abuses of power.
· a model for journalism and speech that encourages vigorous government criticism and supports the highest degree of freedom for individual speech and news operations.
· - the legal definition of censorship in the United States, which prohibits courts and governments from blocking any publication or speech before it actually occurs.
· The legal right of authors and producers to own and control the use of their published or unpublished writing, music, and lyrics; TV programs and movies; or graphic art designs.
· the end of the copyright period for a work, at which point the public may begin to access it for free.
· in law, spoken language that defames a person’s character.
· in libel law, a reckless disregard for the truth, such as when a reporter or an editor knows that a statement is false and prints or airs it anyway.
· - a legal right allowing journalists to report judicial or legislative proceedings even though the public statements being reported may be libelous.
· - a defense against libel which states that libel applies only to intentional misstatements of factual information rather than opinion, and which therefore protects said opinion.
· expression that is not protected as speech if these three legal tests are all met: (1) the average person, applying contemporary community standards, would find the material as a whole appeals to prurient interest; (2) the material depicts or describes sexual conduct in a patently offensive way; (3) the material, as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.
· - laws protecting the confidentiality of key interview subjects and reporters’ rights not to reveal the sources of controversial information used in news stories.
· an issue related to appropriate broadcast content; the government may punish broadcasters for indecency or profanity after the fact, and over the years a handful of radio stations have had their licenses suspended or denied over indecent programming.
· part of the 1934 Communications Act; it mandates that during elections, broadcast stations must qualified political candidates.
· repealed in 1987, this FCC rule required broadcast stations to both air and engage in controversial-issue programs that affected their communities and, when offering such programming, to provide competing points of view.
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