application of evolutionary biology to understanding the social behavior of animals, including humans
theory that all living things have acquired their present forms through gradual changes in their genetic endowment over successive generations
evolution occurs via what?
process in nature resulting in greater rates of survival of those plants and animals that are adapted to their environment
why do we choose mates based on physical attractiveness?
because it indicates health, vigor, in turn indicating reproductive success
specific type of selection that creates differences between males and females
two things involved in sexual selection.
1. competition among members of one gender (usually males) for mating access to memebers of the other gender 2. preferential choice by members of one gender (usually females) for certain members of the other gender
study of psychological mechanisms that have been shaped by natural selection
flaw of evolutionary psychology
assumes that every characteristic has some adaptive significance
who came up with the psychoanalytic theory?
Freud believed that what were the two major forces motivating human behavior?
1. the libido
2. desire to survive
human personality is divided into what three parts?
1. id 2. ego 3. superego
basic part of the personality that is present at birth and includes psychic energy and the libido, operates the pleasure principle
operates on a reality principle; helps a person have realistic rational interactions
contains the conscience, contains values and ideals of society; operates on idealism
areas of the body that are particularly sensitive to sexual stimulation
examples of erogenous zones
lips, mouth, genitals, anus and rectum
what are the 5 stages of psychosexual development?
from birth to one year - pleasure derived from sucking
Anal Stage - when? description.
year 2 - child focues on elimination from the body
Phallic Stage - when? description.
age 3 to 6 interest is focused on the penis, pleasure from masturbation
during what stage do the oedipal/electra complex occur?
Stage 3 - the Phallic Stage
Freud, Sexual attraction of a little boy for his mother
sexual attraction of a little girl for her father
latency stage - description
follows resolution of electra/oedipus complexes, sexual impulses are repressed, and it is prolonged until adolescence
genital stage - when? description?
during puberty -- sexual urges become more specifically genital, and there is biological function of reproduction
in the psychosexual development, do people always progress from one stage to the next?
no, they can remain permanently fixated in one stage
criticisms of Freud's psychoanalytic theory?
- it cannot be evaluated scientifically - this data is from Freud's therapuetic patients (biased, not representative of the general public) - feminists criticize idea of Penis Envy and inferiority of women
classical conditioning -- who's theory? what?
PAVLOV -- learning process in which a previously neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus) is repeatdly paired with an unconditioned stimulus that reflexively elicits an unconditioned response, eventually the conditioned stimulus itself will evoke the response.
operant conditioning - who's theory?
SKINNER - the process of changing the prequency of a behavior (the operant) by following it with positive reinforcement or punishment
a set of operant conditioning techniques used to modify human behavior
a sense of competence at performing an activity
social learning involves what two things?
imitation and identification
social exchange theory
theory based on the principle of reinforcement that assumes that people will chosse actions that maximize rewards and minimize costs
people will choose mates that match them on physical and social characteristics
what does the cognitive theory involve?
belief that happy positive thoughts promote feeling better, and a belief that how we perceive and evaluate a sexual event makes a big difference
a general knowledge framework that a person has about a particular topic
Gender Schema Theory - who? what?
Sandra Bem -- she believes we possess gender schema and tend to filter out sterotype-inconsistant info so that we don't even remember it
sex is ligtimate only within traditional hetersexual marriage and with the goal of having children
how did the industrial revolution affect sexuality?
allowed family members to leave the home, led to less surveillance on sexuality, extramarital affairs and same-gender sex
idea that sex outside of marriage, if in the context of a loving relationship was permissible
socialization of children
parents teach them appropirate norms for behavior
doctors encourage sexual expression
medicalization of sexuality
the process by which certain sexual behaviors or conditions are defined in terms of health and illlness, and problematicexperiences or practives are given medical treament
how does law influence sexual behavior?
because they determine the norms of society
symbolic interaction theory
a theory based on the premise that human nature and the social order are products of communication among people
criticism of symbolic interaction theory
it emphasizes rational, conscious thought which is not always the case, we don't always consciously role take and communicate in an effort to achieve agreement
sociobiology implies what?
that our sexual behaviors are under biological control
Sexual Strategies Theory -- who? what?
Buss ---- idea that we have long-term mating strategies: females select males with resources/commitment and males want faithful females to ensure paternity -- that are different from short term mating strategies: men want promiscuous women
Fetishes are an example of what theory?
sexual behavior is a result of elaborate prior learning that teaches us an etiquette of sexual behavior (little sex behavior is spontaneous)
what two reasons does Reiss give for the universal importance of sexuality?
1. it is associated with great physical pleasure 2. interactions are associated with personal self-disclosure , of body, throughts, and feelings as well
Reiss says sex is linked to social structure in what 3 areas?
1) Kinship (define what is acceptable, jealousy) 2) Power Structure (powerful groups in society try to control sexuality of less powerful groups) 3) Ideology of Society (assumptions about human nature- ex. homosexuality)
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