Carry messages FROM the body's tissues and organs TO the brain
What are interneurons?
Connect sensory neurons, motor neurons, or other interneurons.
Dendrite (neuron component)
Bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
Axon (neuron component)
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or muscles/glands
Insulates the axons of neurons and helps speed their impulses up.
neural impulse that travels down an axon
What happens when a neuron fires? Sequence
The first bit of the axon opens its gates, and the positively charged sodium ions flood through the membrane. This depolarizes that section, causing the next channel to open, and so on.
The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite/cell body of the receiving neuron.
How do neurons send info across the synaptic gap?
By excreting neurotransmitters
Chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse
Function: Enables muscle action, learning, and memory.
Function: Movement, learning, attention, emotion
Function: Mood, hunger, sleep, arousal
Function: Inhibitory neurotransmitter
Under: seizures, tremors, insomnia
Function: Major excitatory neurotransmitter, memory.
Over: migraines, seizures
The body's speedy network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
Central Nervous System
Bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the CNS with muscles, glands, and organs
An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
Records the electrical activity in your brain (through electrodes taped to scalp)
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan
A visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.
Measures brain function/activity
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images of soft tissue. MRI scans show brain anatomy.
X-ray of the Brain
The oldest, innermost region of the brain.
Responsible for automatic survival functions
The base of the brainstem, controls heartbeat/breathing
Nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in arousal, sleep, and attention.