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Ch 22- Respiratory System
Ch 22- Respiratory System
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Called the windpipe, it is a strong cartilaginous tube that conducts air to and from the lungs
Respiratory structure that communicates with the middle ear by the eustachian tube
The Adam's apple or thyroid cartilage is most associated with this structure
The epiglottis directs food and water from the respiratory passages into this structure.
Called the throat
Called the voice box because it contains the vocal cords
The point at which the trachea bifurcates (splits) the area is extremely sensitive and elicits coughing when simulated (as in suctioning with a catheter).
Located between the the larynx and the bronchi and in front of the esophagus
Composed of three parts - naso-, oro-, and laryngo
Large tube that splits into bronchi
These small structures located within the bronchial tree are composed primarily of smooth muscle.
The exchange of the respiratory gases between the air and blood occurs here.
Large, soft, cone-shaped organs that contain the respiratory passages and pulmonary capillaries; they fill most of the thoracic cavity.
Because of smooth muscles, this structure can contract and relax, thereby causing construction and dilation.
The olfactory receptors are located within these cavities
Mucus drains into the nasal cavities from these structures located in the head.
The trachea splits into the right and left
Small respiratory passages that deliver oxygen to the alveoli
Structures partially encircled by the pulmonary cavities
Called resistance vessels
Structures that contain surfactants
Separated by the nasal septum
Space between the vocal cords
Respiratory structure with the largest cross-sectional area; designed for gas exchange
Membrane on the outer surface of each lung
Space between the visceral and parietal pleura membranes; also called a potential space
Muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity
Area between the two lungs; contains other thoracic structures such as the heart, large blood vessels, and the trachea
Dome-shaped muscle that is the chief muscle of inhalation
For the lungs to remain expanded, the pressure must be negative in this area.
Contains the pleural cavity, pericardial cavity, and mediastinum
Skeletal muscles between the ribs; move the rib cage up and out during inhalation
A pneumothorax occurs when the air enters this area
Neurotransmitter at the neuro muscular junction (NMJ) (diaphragm and phrenic nerve)
Motor nerve that stimulates the diaphragm
Structure that delivers air to the bronchi
Pulmonary capillaries partially surround these grape like structures
Structure that delivers oxygen to the alveoli
Lung structure concerned with the exchange of O2 and CO2
Apex of the lung
Trachea branches into these large structures
Base of the lung
Grape like structures that contain surfactants
Windpipe; kept open by the rings of cartilage
Large tubes that deliver air to the bronchioles
A combination of tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, and exploratory reserve volume; about 4600 mL
The amount of air that remains in the lungs after the exhalation of the exploratory reserve volume; about 1200 mL; this air can not be exhaled
An instrument that measures pulmonary volumes
the amount of air moved into or out of the lungs with each breath; the average is 500mL.
Inspiratory reserve volume
The amount of air you inhale after a normal inhalation, about 3000 mL
A pulmonary capacity that is the maximal amount of air exhaled following maximal inhalation
Expiratory reserve volume
The additional volume of air that you can exhale after a normal exhalation
The volume of air that you move during normal quiet breathing.
Dead air space
The air that remains in the conducting spaces of the respiratory tract (trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles); it is unavailable for exchange (about 150 mL
The following are instructions for its use "take the deepest breath possible. Exhale all the air you possibly can into this tube."
Least descriptive of alveoli
Contain smooth muscle
Bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli
Are all located within the lungs
Prevents food and water from entering the respiratory passage.
Refers to amount of air maximally exhaled following maximal inhalation
Trachea does not collapse b/c
It's composed of tough cartilaginous rings
In the absence of surfactants
It's difficult to open the alveoli
Effect of contraction of diaphragm and intercostal muscles
Increases the volume of the thoracic cavity
Stimulates the diaphragm to contract
Transport mechanism that causes the respiratory gases to move across the alveolar-pulmonary capillary membrane
The intrapleural pressure increases
Why does stab wound to chest cause lung to collapse?
When volume increases, pressure decreases
How is most oxygen transported in the blood
How is most carbon dioxide transported in the blood
Medullary respiratory control center
Sensitive to the depressant effects of opioids (narcotics)
An increase in blood _ is most likely to increase the rate if breathing
Quadriplegia and respiratory paralysis
Consequence of a severed spinal cord at the level of C2
True about the aging respiratory system
By age 70, vital capacity has decreased about 33%
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