Groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations which are reproductively isolated from other groups. -Ernst Mayr 1942
Uses and Problems with Biological species concept
Use-legally defines species in Endangered Species Act 1973.
Phenotypic or Morphospecies Concept
If 2 species look more like each other than any other species, they will be grouped together.
Uses and problems with Phenotypic or Morphospecies Concept
Use-Fossils, plants, animals
Problems-Convergent evolution very subjective
Phylogenetic or Evolutionary Species Concept
Any population that forms an independent branch on the phylogeny.
Uses and Problems of the Phylogenetic or Evolutionary Species Concept
Use-Fossils, bacteria, plants and animals
Problems-Need a phylogeny
Ecological Species Concept
A set of organisms adapted to a particular set of resources, called a niche, in their environment.
Uses and Problems of the Ecological Species Concept
Use-Plants and animals
Problems-Requires that individuals in a species do not have divergent life histories.
Begins via dispersal or vicariance.
Breed at different times
Male and female are incompatible for mating.
Egg and sperm cells are incompatible.
The view that species change very slowly in ways that may be imperceptible from one generation to the next but that accumulate and lead to major changes over thousands or millions of years. (slow process)
A hypothesis about the mechanism of evolutionary change proposing that long periods of little or no change are punctuated by periods of rapid evolution.
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