Private european companies were granted vast stretches of African territory to exploit and colonise at their own expense in the name of the European country concerned. An attempt to colonize on the cheap.
Where was the CC system used?
Nigeria - the Royal Niger Company, the Rhodesias - the British South Africa Company, and east Africa - the Imperial British East Africa Company, & in early exploitation of German, French, and Portuguese colonies.
How did the system work in theory?
The company would open up the territory, set up an administration, invest in railways and introduce Africans to a cash economy, building markets for Euro manufactured goods.
How did the system actually work?
Actually: much abuse because it was motivated by short-term private profit; little long term investment in admin, roads, or railways. Instead they concentrated on violent exploitation of the people and their resources.
Effect of African resistance?
high profit levels couldn't be sustained and many went bankrupt. This gave way to European imperial control by 1920s (apart from Mozambique)
What happened to Mozambique?
Where were the worst abuses of the system?
Congo Free State and french Equatorial Africa
How did Leopold abuse the system?
Declared that al land not actively occupied and cultivated was "vacant land" and belonged to him and Free State government. This meant most of the land because of the sparsely populated forest where hunting/gathering and shifting were common.
What did Leopold do with the land?
Some he kept, other he leased to private concessionary companies.
What was the main object of concessionary exploitation in the tropical forests?
Wild rubber due to the spread of the bicycle and motor car in Europe and north America; only subsided with the development of plantations in southeast Asia 1905-1910. Company agents took former slaves and forced people to collect rubber in forests
what was the most readily available form of resistance?
desertion, though this gave way to great hardship--starvation, homelessness, hunger. People then resorted to armed resistance. Lower Congo obtained rifles from traders on the coast.
When dd leopold abandon his private venture? Why?
1908 - growing resistance, international condemnation of the regime, and falling price of rubber; he then handed over the Free State to Belgian government
As much as ___ % of French Equatorial Africa was allocated to ___ ________.
70, 41 private concessionary companies.
How did concessionary companies treat the people?
Company agents raided the forest people, seizing hostages and forcing villagers to hand over fixed quotas of ivory and rubber.
How were those in the middle congo treated?
Thousands of men were forced to work as porters for very low wages, carrying supplies for the French army of conquest in Chad. 16,000 workers died through brutality, disease, or malnutrition. Population levels fell dramatically
What was AFrican respnse in sub-Saharan west Africa?
The savannah and forest zones were the regions where African initiative was best able to respond to new market opportunities. Forced labour and plundering were characteristic.
Rubber and hardwood were plundered from _____.
Production of raw materials in the sub-Saharan west Africa region was in the hands of ______.
peastant farmers & natives, because they were more efficient producers
Who encouraged Africans to turn to cash crops?
French and British
What were the main export cops of the pre-colonial 19th century? What happened to them?
Groundnuts and palm oil. Ground nuts production in senegal expanded greatly with the railway growth which reached from Dakar to Bamako on the upper Niger. Senegalese peasants migrated seasonally into the Gambia river valley to cultivate/sell exports.
_____ was the principal export of Igboland, in _____
Palm oil, though palm-oil exports from Dahomey never recovered to the scale of preconquest.
What is one example of African initiative?
cocoa as an export crop from the Gold Coast. British governor of the Gold Coast set up a cocoa nursery in 1880s, but initiative for rapid spread la in hands of local peasant farmers.
How did local peasant farmers promote cocoa spread?
from akwapim ridge, industrious farmers migrated northwards into the relatively under-cultivated forest zone. There, they bought land from local Akan chiefs and developed peasant operated cocoa plantation system.
The British expected the ____ of ____ ________ to produce _____, but they instead produced _____.
Hausa, northern nigeria, cotton, ground nuts
_____ and ______ produced cotton heavily.
Egypt and Uganda
Why was cotton so successful in Uganda?
the Baganda were already used to intensive agricultural production. The British used an alliance with Christian Buganda to est a protectorate over the region. 1900 - another agreement laying the ground for control.
What agreement did Brits make with Uganda in 1900?
Not to take land from white settlement and introduce a system of private land tenure, so it became privately owned estates of chiefs and peasants were tenants
What development allowed cotton production to take off?
Uganda Railway from Mombasa to Kisumu and the BCGA introduction of seed in 1903; land tenure system;
What was one major impact of the crops in Uganda?
soil and climate were suitable for farmers to produce cotton crop and tend to banana plantations for food, giving them security not experienced elsewhere
How did British view kenya? Why? Did this work?
Potential colony for white settlement due to favorable climate and fertile soils. the Africans in the area, however, put up resistance and warred between 1910-1908.
What was the main German colony? How did they approach colonization?
Viewed most of German East Africa as a source of ivory and taxation, with the exception of some plantationes in the north near Mt. Kili.
Rebellion in German East Africa
Known as the MajiMaji rebellion, broke out in the Matumbi hills, when the locals resisted government attempts to force them into growing cotton for export. Spread rapidly on all foreigners.
Describe the african forces in the Maji Maji rebellion
spontaneous with no previous planning or central leadership. They turned to their beliefs in the powers of the spirit world in an attempt to overcome the problems of other resistance
How did Germans defeat Maji Maji?
with machine guns and reinforcements from Somaland and New Guinea; scorched earth policy, and ensuing famine
How did German colonists undermined the pastoralists of SW Africa?
rinderpest epidemic->heavy losses of cattle and under used grazing land; White traders also stripped pastoralists of the cattle to stock new white ranches and extended food loans and then insisted on payment of remaining livestock
What did the Hereo leadership consider a deliberate white conspiracy?
the arival of labor recruiters from Johannesburg
What led to the downfall of the Herero?
They were unable to persuade the Nama to join them quickly enough. They were driven to the Kalahari desert where tens of thousands died in thirst and starvation.
How did the Nama revolt?
What was the labor result after the war?
Germans had to seek new recruits from Ovamboland in the North
How did African Christian Clergymen respond to European domination of Churches?
rebelled and formed independent churches, including Ethiopian Church movement; rejected Euro control and formed independent African churches to spread to central Africa in the wake of the spread of Euro colonialism
One of the strongest voices of African christian protesters; preached a second coming which would liberate all of Africa; began the Watchtower movement
from Nyasaland, founded his own mission station in Shire Highlands, an area of white plantation settlement. 1915 - led brief rebellion against local and general injustices of the colonial regime. objected to shredding of African blood in WW1
How did Africa get brought into WW1?
British and French invaded German colonies of Togo and Kamerun. The newly united white govt of South Africa occupied the German colony of SW Africa. Longest conflict was in German East Africa=SA+British vs German;
How did this affect Africans?
villages burned, labor and food was taken, 1 million Kenyans and TAnz served as porters and many died of diseas/mal/overwork;
Where did British get troops from?
Sierra Leone, Gold Coast, and Nigeria
What compounded the harm of WW1?
Famine and the influenza pandemic of 1918-19. Spread along the coast inland along new railway lines, struck hardest where areas were already weakened by warfare, hunger, or poor working conditions
How was German territory divided?
French and British shared Togo and Kamerun
Rwanda and Burundi - Belgians
Tanganyika - British
SW Africa - South Africa
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