Functional unit of the kidney is the _____________.
Nephron (1.3 million)
What does the nephron consist of?
Renal corpuscle- consists of bowman's capsule and glomerulus
Proximal convoluted tubule-
loop of Henle-
distal convoluted tubule- empties into collecting duct
85% of total nephrons
Located in cortex
Located at the cortex-medulla junction
Production of concentrated urine
Blood Flow Through The Kidney
1. Through larger arteries and veins of kidney
2. Through the arteries, capillaries, veins that provide circ. to the nephron
Branches off aorta and enters renal sinus
Gives rise to afferent arterioles
Supply the glomerular capillaries inside bowman's capsule
Arise from glomerular capillaries and carry blood away from the glomeruli.
It gives rise to a plexus of capillaries called pertibular capillaries
The vasa recta (specialized portions of the pertibular capillaries) extends deep into the medulla and surround the loops of Henle and collecting ducts.
The peritubular capillaries join small veins in the cortex that converge to form the renal vein, which exists the kidney
Formed where distal convoluted tubule comes into contact with afferent arteriole next to Bowman's Capsule
Consists of granular cells of afferent arteriole and macula densa
1. Filtration- movement of materials across the filtration membrane into Bowman's capsule to form filtrate
2. Tubular Reabsorption- soultes are reabsorbed across the wall of the nephron into the interstitial fluid by transport processes. Water is absorbed by osmosis. Water and solutes pass from interstitial fluid into peritubular capillaries
3. Tubular Secretion- Solutes are secreted across wall of nephron into filtrate
Hormonal Regulation of urine concentration and volume
ADH regulates blood osmolality by altering water reabsorption
Atrial Natriuretic- produced by the heart when blood pressure increases
Function: store urine (1000 mL)
Tube that exits the urinary bladder inferiorly and anteriorly
Carries urine to outside of body
Stratified and Squamous epithelium
What causes urine to flow through the nephron and ureters?
emptying of urinary bladder activated by stretch of bladder wall
Effects of aging on kidney
Gradual decrease in size of kidney
Renin secretion and vitamin D synthesis decrease
Nephron secretion and absorption decline
Respond almost instantaneously to changes in pH
May take hour to days to respond to changes in pH
Takes minutes to respond to changes in pH
Hypo- decreased frequency of breathing, increased blood co2
Hyper- increased frequency of breathing, decreased blood co2
Want to see the other 26 Flashcards in Ch. 23 Exam 5 Study Guide?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!