Women have a tendency to retain water during part of the menstrual cycle because estrogen mimics the action of
A) ADH B) aldosterone C) atrial natriuretic hormone D) oxytocin E) prolactin
Most body water comes from _____, whereas most body water is lost via ___.
A) metabolic water; cutaneous transpiration B) metabolic water; sweat C) drinking; cutaneous transpiration and expired air D) drinking; urine E) drinking; radiation
D) drinking; urine
The bicarbonate buffer system would not work very well in the human body if not for the action of the respiratory system, which
A) supplies the buffer system with CO2. B) supplies the buffer system with O2. C) expels HCO3- produced by the buffer system. D) expels H+ produced by the buffer system. E) expels CO2 produced by the buffer system.
E) expels CO2 produced by the buffer system.
Acidosis is a pH lower than 7, whereas alkalosis is a pH higher than 7.
A) True B) False
In acidosis, the kidneys compensate by
A) secreting more bicarbonate B) secreting more ammonia C) secreting more sodium D) reabsorbing more hydrogen ions E) reabsorbing more ammonia
B) secreting more ammonia
Most of the body water is in
A) the intracellular fluid (ICF) B) the extracellular fluid (ECF) C) tissue (interstitial) fluid D) blood plasma and lymph E) the transcellular fluid
A) the intracellular fluid (ICF)
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
A) stimulates angiotensin II secretion. B) promotes water conservation. C) stimulates hypothalamic osmoreceptors. D) inhibits salivation and thirst. E) targets the cerebral cortex.
B) promotes water conservation
The major chemical buffers systems of the body are the ___ systems.
A) urinary and respiratory B) urinary and digestive C) bicarbonate, phosphate, and protein D) bicarbonate, nucleic acids, and protein E) bicarbonate, phosphate, and nitrate
C) bicarbonate, phosphate, and protein
Breathing with the head inside a plastic bag can lead to
A) metabolic alkalosis B) metabolic acidosis C) urinary alkalosis D) urinary acidosis E) respiratory acidosis
E) respiratory acidosis
Osmosis from one fluid compartment to another is determined by
A) the temperature difference between compartments. B) the relative concentration of solutes in each compartment. C) the relative volume in each compartment. D) the relative size of each compartment. E) blood pressure.
B) the relative concentration of solutes in each compartment.
In which of these compartments would fluid accumulate in edema?
A) intracellular fluid (ICF) B) transcellular fluid C) tissue (interstitial) fluid D) blood plasma E) lymph
C) tissue (interstitial) fluid
Chloride homeostasis is achieved mainly as a result of ___ homeostasis.
A) H2PO4- B) PO4^3- C) HCO3- D) Na+ E) K+
A) increases both Na+ and K+ reabsorption. B) increases both Na+ and K+ secretion. C) increases Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion. D) reduces Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion. E) causes the urine to be more diluted.
C) increases Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion
Hypokalemia can result from all of the following except from
A) chronic vomiting B) diarrhea C) heavy sweating D) aldosterone hyposecretion E) excessive use of laxatives
D) aldosterone hyposecretion
An antiport system on the basal side of renal tubule cells
A) transports bicarbonate from the tubular fluid back into the tubule cells. B) transports H+ in both directions across the epithelium. C) transports CO2 from the blood into the tubule cells. D) exchanges K+ for Na+. E) exchanges H+ for Na+.
D) exchanges K+ for Na+.
When the renal tubules secrete hydrogen ions into the tubular fluid, they ___ at the same time.
A) secrete potassium B) secrete sodium C) reabsorb potassium D) secrete chloride E) reabsorb sodium
E) reabsorb sodium
A weak base
A) binds little OH- and has a weak effect on pH. B) binds lots of OH- and has a strong effect on pH. C) binds little H+ and has a weak effect on pH. D) resists changes in OH-. E) lowers the pH.
C) binds little H+ and has a weak effect on pH.
Calcium concentration is regulated by
A) hormones B) sodium and calcium concentration in plasma C) chloride and phosphate concentration in plasma D) the parasympathetic nervous system E) the sympathetic nervous system
Fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic receptors called osmoreceptors.
A) True B) False
Chronic vomiting can lead to
A) metabolic acidosis B) metabolic alkalosis C) respiratory alkalosis D) respiratory acidosis E) lymphatic alkalosis
B) metabolic alkalosis
The kidneys secrete ADH in response to dehydration.
A) True B) False
Excessive intake of antacids can lead to
A) metabolic alkalosis B) metabolic acidosis C) respiratory alkalosis D) respirtatory acidosis E) digestive alkalosis
B) metabolic acidosis
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