A distinct, indentifiable group of populations that is thought to be evolutionary independent of other populations and whose members can interbreed; generally distinct from other species in appearance, behavior, habitat, ecology, genetic characteristics, etc.
Biological Species Concept
The def. of a species as a population/group that are reproductively isolated from other groups; members can interbreed to produce viable, fertile offspring but can't produce viable, fertile hybrid offspring w/ members of other species.
Reproductive isolation resulting from any one of several mechanisms that prevent individuals of two different species from mating.
Reproductive isolation resulting from mechanisms that operate after mating of individuals of two different species occurs.
The definition of a species as a population or group of populations that have measurably different anatomical features from other groups.
A species that cannot be distinguished from other species by easily identifiable morphological traits.
Phylogenetic Species Concept
The definition of a species as the smallest monophyletic group in a phylogenetic tree.
Monophyletic Group/ Clade/ Lineage
An evolutionary unit that includes an ancestral population and all of its descendants but no others.
A shared, derived trait found in two or more taxa that is present in their most recent common ancestor but is missing in more distant ancestors.
A population that has distinctive traits and some genetic differences relative to other populations of the same species but that is not distinct enough to be classified as a separate species.
The physical splitting of a population into smaller, isolated populations by a geographic barrier.
The divergence of populations into different species by physical isolation of populations in different geographic areas.
The study of how species and populations are distributed geographically.
Closely related species, which occupy adjacent branches in a phylogenetic tree.
The divergence of populations living within the same geographic area into different species as the result of their genetic (not physical) isolation.
Condition in which two or more populations live in the same geographic area, or close enough to permit interbreeding.
Condition in which two or more populations live in different geographic areas.
The state of having more than two full sets of chromosomes.
The state of having more than two full sets of chromosomes due to a mutation that doubled the chromosome number.
The state of having more than two full sets of chromosomes due to hybridization between different species.
The natural selection for traits that prevent interbreeding between recently diverged species.
A geographic area where interbreeding occurs between two species, sometimes producing fertile hybrid offspring.
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