disruption in the ability to process a particular kind of semantic information, such as difficulty recognizing objects (a form of visual) or understanding the meaning of spoken words (a form of auditory)
memory loss, often due to brain damage or disease
the inability to form new episodic and semantic memories, although older memories may be preserved largely intact
the areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved in associating information within and across sensory modalities.
a group of brain structures near the base of the frontal lobe that may be important in modulating hippocampal function and therefore in regulating new memory formation
a length of time during which new episodic memories are vulnerable and easily lost or altered
a subclass of source amnesia in which a person mistakenly thinks that current thoughts are novel or original
a memory test that involves some kind of prompt or cue to aid recall
a category of memory that includes semantic memory and episodic memory, memories that can typically be verbalized or "declared"
depth of processing
the degree to which we analyze (or process) new information; in general, deeper processing of information leads to better remembering of that information
a group of brain structures, including the mammillary bodies and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus, that may help regulate communication between the hippocampus and the cortex
a brief pulse of electricity that is passed through the brain and can severely disrupt newly formed memories, ECT is sometimes used to alleviate severe depression
memory for autobiographical events that occurred at a particular time and location
a category of memory that includes semantic memory and episodic memory; these memories tend to be "explicit": you know that you know the information
a memory of an event that never actually happened
a memory test that involves simply generating the information from memory
an area of the cerebral cortex within the frontal lobes that may play a role in determining which memories are stored.
amnesia that seems to result from psychological causes (such as psychological trauma) rather than physiological causes (such as brain injury)
hierarchical semantic network
a model of semantic memory in which concepts are represented as nodes arranged hierarchially according to class membership; relationships between objects and concepts are encoded as connections or links between them and can be modified by learning
a brain structure in the medial temporal lobe that is important for new memory formation, especially of episodic and semantic memory
a category of memory (e.g. skill memory, conditioning, fear learning) that includes everything except explicit memory: you may not consciously realize you know the information
normal forgetting in adulthood of events from infancy and early childhood
reduction in the strength of a memory due to overlap with the content of other memories
a condition of anterograde amnesia with some retrograde amnesia, caused by thiamine deficiency; often associated with chronic alcohol abuse.
medial temporal lobe
brain regions in each hemisphere that include the hippocampus, amygdala and other areas important for memory
a strategy to aid in memorization
multiple memory trace theory
the theory that episodic memories are encoded by an ensemble of hippocampal and cortical neurons and that both hippocampus and cortex are normally involved in storing and retrieving even very old memories
a category of memory that includes skill memory, conditioning, fear learning and other memories that are difficult to verbalize or "declare"
disruption of new learning by previously stored information
a memory test that involves picking out (or recognizing) a studied item from a list of possible options
disruption of old learning by recently acquired information
the loss of episodic memories dating from before a brain injury or disruption; memory loss usually occurs in a time-graded manner, so more recent memories are devastated by very old ones may be spared
a pattern of memory loss in which recently acquired memories are more prone to disruption than older memories
memory for facts or general knowledge about the world
the areas of cerebral cortex involved in processing sensory information such as sight or sound
remembering a fact or event but misattributing the source or context in which this information was acquired
standard consolidation theory
the theory that the hippocampus is initially required for episodic memory storage and retrieval but that, over time, its contribution diminishes until the cortex alone can store and retrieve old memories
the principle that memory retrieval is best when the cues available at testing are similar to those available at encoding
transient global amnesia (TGA)
a temporary disruption of memory, usually including both anterograde and retrograde amnesia
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