All the organisms that live in a geographic area, together with the nonliving (abiotic) components that affect or exchange materials with the organisms; a community and its physical environment.
Alterations of the physical components of an ecosystem by living organisms, especially beneficial changes in the quality of the atmosphere, soil, water, etc.
Members of several phyla of green plants that lack vascular tissue including liverworts, hornworts, and mosses; non-vascular plants.
In plants, tissue that transports water, nutrients, and sugars; made up of the complex tissues xylem and phloem, each of which contains several cell types.
A plant reproductive structure consisting of an embryo, associated nutritive tissue, and an outer protective layer; in angiosperms, develops from the fertilized ovule of a flower.
A flowering vascular plant that produces seeds within mature ovaries; form a single lineage.
A watertight material that encases spores and pollen of modern land plants.
A spore-producing structure found in seed plants, some protists and some fungi.
A vascular plant that makes seeds but does not produce flowers; include 4 lineages of green plants.
A microscopic pore on the surface of a leaf or stem through which gas exchange occurs.
One of two specialized, crescent-shaped cells forming the border of a plant stoma; can change shape to open or close the stoma.
An opening in the epithelium that allows gas exchange.
A substance found in the secondary cell walls of some plants that is exceptionally stiff and strong; most abundant in woody plant parts.
In vascular plants, a long, thin water-conducting cell that has gaps in its secondary cell wall, allowing water movement between adjacent calls.
Secondary Cell Wall
The inner layer of a plant cell wall formed by certain cells as they mature; provides support or protection.
Primary Cell Wall
The outermost layer of a plant cell wall, made of cellulose fibers and gelatinous polysaccharides, that defines the shape of the cell and withstands the turgor pressure of the plasma membrane.
In vascular plants, a short, wide water-conductin cell that has gaps through both the primary and secondary walls, allowing unimpeded passage of water between adjacent cells.
Xylem resulting from secondary growth.
The gamete-forming structure found in all land plants except angiosperms; contains a sperm-producing antheridium and an egg-producing archegonium.
The sperm-producing structure in most land plants except angiosperms.
The egg-producing structure in most land plants except angiosperms.
A name for the lineage called land plants.
A cell that transfers nutrients from a parent plant to a developing plant seed.
The production of two distinct types of spore-producing structures and thus two distinct types of spores: microspores and megaspores.
In seedless vascular plants, the production of just one type of spore.
In heterosporous species of plants, a spore-producing structure that produces microspores, which go on to develop into male gametophytes.
In heterosporous species of plants, a spore-producing structure that produces megaspores, which go on to develop into female gametophytes.
In seed plants, a male gametophyte enclosed within a protective coat.
In angiosperms, the part of a plant that contains reproductive structures.
The male reproductive structure of a flower; consists of an anther, in which pollen grains are produced, and a filament, which supports the anther.
The female reproductive organ in a flower; consists of the stigma, to which pollen grains adhere, the style, through which pollen grains move; and the ovary, which houses the ovule.
The egg-producing organ of a female animal, or the seed-producing structure in the female part of a flower.
An unusual form of reproduction seen in flowering plants, in which one sperm nucleus fuses with an egg to form a zygote and the other sperm nucleus fuses with two polar nuclei to form the triploid endosperm.
A triploid tissue in the seed of a flowering plant that serves as food for the plant embryo.
One of the protective leaflike organs enclosing a flower bud and later supporting the blooming flower.
One of the leaflike organs arranged around the reproductive organs of a flower; often colored and scented to attract pollinators.
The process by which pollen reaches the carpel of a flower or reaches the ovule directly.
The sugary fluid produced by flowers to attract and reward pollinating animals.
In flowering plants, a mature, ripened plant ovary, along with the seeds it contains and any adjacent fused parts.
Rapid evolutionary diversification within one lineage, producing numerous descendant species with a wide range of adaptive forms.
Any plant that has a single cotyledon upon germination; form a monophyletic group.
Any plant that has two cotyledons upon germination; do not form a monophyletic group.
The first leaf, or seed leaf, of a plant embryo, used for storing and digesting nutrients and/or for early photosynthesis.
A member of a monophyletic group of angiosperms that includes complex flowering plants and trees; have two cotyledons, but not all dicots are members of this lineage.
A paraphyletic group of photosynthetic organisms that contain chloroplasts similar to those in green plants; closest living relatives of land plants and form a monophyletic group with them.
A symbiotic association of a fungus and a photosynthetic algae.
The hairlike structure that anchors a bryophyte to the substrate.
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