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*leaders inspire people to strive to accomplish particular goals by doing the right thing. They see beyond the here & now, perhaps beyond the organization's current status, to what migh be and are internally driven toward that vision.
*In contrast, management is the effective use of selected methods to accomplish current organizational goals. Managers are generally driven by external organizational rewards. Management provides the means to achieve the organization's goals by doing the thing right.
*The terms leadership & management are sometimes used interchangeably, but, in fact they have different meanings. Leadership is a broader and more futuristic role, whereas management is more local and task focused.
*Leadership is a difficult concept to define, but it generally means guidance or showing the way to others. Leaders clarify and punctuate unifying values for groups from which to draw that, when combined w/Vision, create a mission for the group to work toward. Formal leaders hold formal leadership positions. Informal positions also influence systems.
*managers get things organized so the leader's vision can be achieved. In other words, leadership may be considered as the inspiration, and management may be considered as the perspiration. Ideally, leadership and management complement and build on each other. Both leaders and managers must have vertain characteristics to be effective. 1st, they must be competent. They must have respect of the people who work w/them to accomplish their goals. 2nd they must be able to communicate w/others. People in leadership and management positions work well w/other people.
Managers must be able to motivate others. They must determine what other people consider important and why they behave as they do.
*Reinforces motivation and enhances positive outcomes for everyone.
*Managers provide multiple motivators.
Good leaders and managers seem to have certain characteristic goals, the willingness to try out new ideas, nd the ability to think positively.
AKA Authoritarian, directive, or bureaucratic.
*Achieve their goals by setting objectives & having them carried out w/o input or suggestions from others on how to do so. They believe that they have complete authority that should not be questioned. They do not encourage individual initiative or cooperation among members of the organization; instead they are task oriented, making decisions independently & issuing orders to those working w/them.
*Does not work well in many situations, this style is necessary in other situaions (Ex. During an emergency one person must take charge.)
Focusing on the individual abilities & attributes of each member. People are encouraged to provide input into the problem-solving process, and decisions are often made through group consensus. The group informed of the goals & direction of the organization so that input has a direct relationship to attaining the goals. Instead of pwer struggles, democratic leaders turn problems over to the group to manage. Democratic leaders lead by suggestion rather than by domination. They persuade & teach rather than rule. Most people work w/a democratic leader have a feeling of satisfaction because they have a part in managing their work situation.
Find no pleasure in their work; dislike responsibilities; are naturally lazy & prefer to do nothing; work mainly for the money; work only because they fear being fired; are basically childlike and like being told what to do; do not want to think for themselves; are not capable of making decisions for themselves;
*According to theory x, people have these general characteristics and therefore want to be directed and controlled.
According to theory Y, people are dynamic, flexible, and adaptive. Believers assume in this theory that people: are active & enjoy setting their own goals; work for rewards other than money, such as doing the job well and working w/others in the process; are productive because of their own personal goals rather than because of goals set for them; are mature and responsible; are self directed; accept responsibility; care about what they are doing; are constantly striving to grow.
*people are thought to like their work when tey know what is expected of them and when their work gives them satisfaction.
1st step in management process. entails deciding in advance what needs to be done and how to do it. to provide effective care for pt's, a good plan for carrying out their care must be developed.
*2 important compnents of planning and decision making and problem solving.
*1st step in decision making is to identify a problem, a problem is sometimes quite obvious, but at other times, underlying issues make the real problem less obvious. Explore all aspects of the situation to identify the real problem. Seek answers to such questions as who, how, when, and why.
the 2nd step in management process. a formal structure or organization must be in place to ensure that individuals can carry out actions in the most efficient and effective manner possible. Organization also helps develop order, promote cooperation among workers and foster productivity.
Part of the process of organizing is developing objectives. these help guide the process of planning and organizing. Another part is establishing policies and procedures to provide guidelines for carrying out the objectives.
The most qualified people should be assigned to carryout the specific activities and tasks that will best achieve the objectives.
May involve the development of job descriptions, performance standards and staffing patterns to provide the best pt care possible.
1.Establishing standards (desired outcomes) & objectives.
2.Measuring performance & comparing the results w/the standards
3.Making corrections or adjustments to remedy any deficiencies in the caregiving operations.
Frustration-people believe their goals are being blocked; they feel frustration.
Conceptualization-each party formulates a view of the basis for conflict. Conflicts typically center on perceived differences in facts, goals, how to achieve goals, & values on which goals are based.
Action-the conflict leads to various behaviors that may or may not help resolve the conflict.
Outcomes-Goals ma be reformulated so they are acceptable to all parties; 1 party may "win," the other "lose"; emotions may be positive or negative.
Functions are to plan, set priorities for, & eval. pt. care.
Are responsible for ongoing collection of data of each pt. & for assisting in the determination of nursing Dx's They must be sure that medical orders & plans are carried out & documented. They initiate discharge planning, identify referral needs, & facilitate pt. Education. Are also responsible for keeping care plans current & documenting the nursing care provided. Team leaders are responsible for planning & conducting team conferences & reporting changes to the RN supervisor. LVN/LPN who assumes the position of team leader can help carry out these responsibilities undert he supervision & guidance of an RN.
Assignments are base on pt needs, available staff, job descriptions, scope of practice for licensed nurses, and scope of functions for nursing assistants.
Always when delegating a task, you have a duty to maintain pt safety. Effective delegation requires delegating a clearly identified task & related time frames, validating understanding, identifying pt needs, empowering the staff person to carry out activities to complete the task, & monitoring staff performance.
team leaders must demonstrate accountability for their own actions, as well as the actions of the staff they are directing.
Means that a person is answerable for his/her actions; that is he/she may be called on to explain or justify them. Team leaders also are legally responsible for all nursing care & documentation. Ensuring that proper & accurate charting is carried out for all nursing assessments, interventions & evaluations is the responsibility of RN team leader.
*organize the info before beginning.
*give pt's room, name, age, dx, and md
*provide brief, objective account of each pt condition, including new or changed orders.
*Refer to vital signs, temp. elevations, iv fluids, & intake and output as relevant.
*Pt's receiving pain meds, note drug name, dosage, frequency, time of last administration, & effectiveness.
*cover needed info for preop pt's, include preop teaching done, time of preop meds, completion of surgical checklists, etc
*Give info about post op pt's, including time of arrival form operating or recovery room, general condition, vital signs, iv fluids required, dressings, voiding, diet, nature of breathing, coughing, vital & type, location & patency of tubes.
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