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In joining, or spending time with, and getting to know, a new group of people, it is initially most important to ________.
A) understand the nuances of speech and "tone" of the group members' interactions
B) be friends with a high-status member of the group
C) be viewed as having something to offer the group
D) have an unclear idea of why you wish to spend time with the group
E) be willing to undergo any initiation exercise you might be asked to undergo
A readiness to see negative outcomes as due to discrimination is called ________.
A) stigma consciousness
B) differential treatment
C) prejudice targeting
D) stereotype threat
E) gender-based exclusion
The author, while speculating about why she got called a "troll" in a chat room, thought it was because she didn't "know the ropes," but she also displayed some ________.
A) stigma consciousness
E) unclear feelings
Whether we wish it or not, Shakespeare admonishes that we are ________ on a stage, and that we're in the position of ________.
A) merely players; presenting ourselves to an observing and potentially changing audience
B) merely players; attempting to manipulate others in the service of our own ends
C) mortal fools; avoiding the appearance of "cluelessness" on a daily basis
D) insignificant specks; playing up our abilities to people less competent
E) glorious headliners; adopting a posture of humility while attempting to get our needs met
As players on a social "stage," we may wish to emphasize some personal aspect to others, as well as to ourselves. This is called ________.
6) In meeting a new roommate, David stresses his studious qualities, an aspect of himself he wishes others to agree with, while being willing to underplay other potentially important aspects of himself. David is practicing a ________ approach in presenting himself to others.
In negotiating a new roommate's perception of his (David's) personal qualities, David may agree with his new roommate's self-assessment as a(n) ________ because it aids David in "selling" David's view of himself as a(n) ________. Additionally, David may downplay his own ________.
A) gifted athlete; excellent student; athletic accomplishments
B) gifted athlete; excellent student; accomplishments in other areas
C) gifted "ladies' man"; excellent student; same-sex orientation
D) depressed ne'er-do-well; excellent student; unrealistic optimism
E) son of a wealthy eastern industrialist; financial-aid student; future plan to ask his new roommate for a
________ involves using praise of important others as a way to encourage them to like us and approve of us.
B) In-group effect
E) Out-group removal
Implying that we are not as good as another person on some dimension may result in ________ and/or ________.
A) an ingratiation effect; lower our audience's expectations B) humiliating ourselves; significantly raise our audience's expectations C) an appearance of insincerity; raise our audience's expectations D) less self-efficacy; future poor performance on the dimension E) an appearance of incompetence; drive away competent others
Differences between shy and non-shy people appeared to be ________ online compared to offline because of the ________ of ________.
A) reduced; absence; visual and auditory feedback
B) increased; absence; encouragement offline
C) reduced; presence; empathy toward shy males by females D) reduced; absence; physical threat cues from another person E) increased; absence; comforting contextual cues
The rejection of in-group members who threaten the positive image of the group is known as ________.
A) the black sheep effect
C) the rejective-disjunctive effect
D) group monitoring
E) social comparison theory
________, more than ________, forms of computer-based communications may lead to misunderstandings regarding ________.
A) Asynchronous; synchronous; humor and/or sarcasm.
B) Synchronous; asynchronous; empathy and/or affection
C) Synchronous; asynchronous; seductive messages
D) Asynchronous; synchronous; dictionary meanings of some words E) Synchronous; asynchronous; talking at the same time
Research suggests that insecurity regarding their presentational skills may differentially lead some people to chronic dependency on online social interactions. This would suggest that online social interaction ________.
A) is somewhat dangerous for the average person
B) is especially dangerous for younger people
C) is very likely to lead most people to some loss of essential real-world social skills D) requires people to exercise a common sense balance with face-to-face interactions E) is not a truly satisfying form of social interaction
Nisbett and Wilson (1977) showed that, after an action, we examine our ________ and generate ________ reasons for why we acted a certain way.
A) behavior; often inaccurate
B) feelings; mostly accurate
C) attitudes; highly insightful
D) behavior; mostly complex
E) feelings; family-of-origin-based
_______, Bobby Ray argues, would change his life forever. It is likely that Bobby Ray would be ________ a year later than(as) he would now predict.
A) Winning the lottery; not as happy
B) Having a bad car accident; even less happy
C) Winning the lottery but failing to turn in the ticket on time; angrier
D) Having a bad car accident and having to get around in a wheelchair; less optimistic E) Having a bad car accident in which a friend was hurt; more guilty
When thinking about a bad or happy event and predicting our future level of happiness, we tend to ________.
A) neglect all the other factors that will contribute to our future state of mind over time
B) assume the bad or happy event will change us in some meaningful way
C) assume others will view us differently as the result of some bad or happy event
D) underplay the fact that a bad or happy event will likely change us in meaningful ways
E) forget that others may experience bad or happy events over time, leading us to not be able to make appropriate comparisons
Introspection is an effective means of understanding ourselves when ________.
A) the individual is attempting to understand the reasons for his or her feelings about something important B) the focus is on unconscious affective factors C) the individual displays an introverted personality configuration
D) the individual is attempting to predict future feelings about something E) the focus is on a conscious decision-making process
We tend to make ________ attributions for our own behaviors, but ________ attributions for others' behaviors.
A) situational; dispositional
B) dispositional; situational
C) positive; negative
D) negative; positive
E) realistic; unrealistic
When people described themselves as they were five years ago, or as they are today, they saw their past self as more ________, and their present self as more ________.
A) dispositionally guided; situationally variable
B) situationally variable; dispositionally guided
C) socially-challenged; financially-challenged
D) time-management-oriented; content-focus-oriented E) trait-simple; trait-complex
Having been given "acting lessons" to either 1) "try to feel as if you are 14 years old at dinner with family," or 2) "put on a performance so you will seem to others as if you're 14 years old at dinner with family," participants in acting condition ________ were more likely to see themselves as having ________.
A) 2; more consistent traits B) 1; more consistent traits C) 2; few consistent traits
D) 1; greater emotional range
E) 2; emotionally stilted interactions
The personal-social identity continuum recognizes that ________.
A) we see ourselves as being more consistent across situations than we really are B) we can see ourselves differently, depending on circumstances
C) we are part of a number of different social groups
D) we see ourselves primarily as individuals
E) we present many different "selves," depending on the social grouping
When we think of ourselves as members of specific social groups, we are thinking of our ________.
A) sexual self-schema
B) social-personal self
C) personal self
D) cultural self identity
E) social identity
The personal identity ________.
A) conceptualizes the self as a member of particular social groups
B) allows us to attribute our successes to external causes
C) conceptualizes the self as a unique individual
D) prevents us from recognizing most discrepancies between our behavior and our attitudes
E) allows us to attribute our failures to external causes
George was listening as a friend described him to someone else on the telephone. His friend's description included "friendly, taller, active" and similar terms. As a result, George is now probably thinking of himself in terms of ________.
A) collectivist relationships
B) indeterminant relationships C) intergroup comparisons
D) intragroup comparisons
E) individualistic relationsips
Chris describes himself as liberal when thinking of himself as an American, but conservative when compared to other college students. These are ________ comparisons.
C) shifting standards
When Jeremy was recently asked to describe himself to his classmates, he spoke about being a member of the football team and how this helped to make his experiences different from those of other students in the class. Jeremy was primarily making ________ comparisons.
E) instrumental group
________ comparisons are based around attributes ________ with ________, but which are ________ to (from) ________ group.
A) Intergroup; we may share; other members of our group; contrasted; another
B) Intragroup; we may share; other members of our group; contrasted; another
C) Intergroup; we may differ on; members of another race; similar; another
D) Intragroup; we may differ on; females, if we are male; shared; a male
E) Intragroup; we may share; only individuals we relate to on another attribute; different; a similarly featured
When Karen was recently asked to describe herself to her classmates, she spoke about being a student and a member of her class. She pointed out similarities and differences between herself and her fellow students Karen was primarily making ________ comparisons.
E) instrumental group
George was listening as a friend described him to someone else on the telephone. His friend's description included "Tall man, a psychologist, bicyclist" and similar terms. As a result, George is now probably thinking of himself in terms of ________.
A) indeterminant relationships
B) intergroup comparisons
C) intragroup comparisons
D) individualistic relationships
E) interpersonal relationships
People's personal identities, and their various social identities, require them to be different people in different contexts. This results ________.
A) in people having false selves depending on the context B) in people often having a distorted view of who they "really are"
C) in people often operating from a less-than-principled position D) in others defining too much of who we are E) in a potentially variable but coherent self-definition
Our self-concept varies periodically because ________.
A) our subjective experience of in-groups and out-groups changes over time B) we do not experience all aspects of our self-concept simultaneously.
C) our experiences cause subtle changes in our personalities
D) our intergroup comparisons change over time
E) we do not consciously recognize negative aspects of our self-concept
People tend to describe themselves in different ways under different circumstances. According to Mendoza-Denton's (2001) research, people who are given open-ended prompts tend to describe themselves using ________ terms.
A) state-like and specific
B) state specific
C) situationally contingent
E) trait-like and global
High self-efficacy seems to lead people to employ (select) ________, which ultimately results in their obtaining better deals than people low in self-efficacy.
A) more effective negotiation tactics
B) more powerful associates
C) a willingness to ask for a higher price
D) higher levels of sycophancy (ingratiation)
E) greater levels of confidence, even if it is insincere
A study of chronic dieters found that making an initial tempting food item available caused them to ________ a second appealing dish.
A) eat more of
B) eat less of
C) eat the initial item but ignore
D) combine (and then eat) the first item with
E) angrily reject the initial item but sadly reject
Self-esteem refers to the ________.
A) positive or negative evaluation of the self by oneself
B) amount of positive emotion that one is experiencing at the moment
C) positive or negative evaluation of one's self by others
D) evaluations of others about the self
E) desire to be liked by others
A person's overall attitude towards him- or herself is known as ________.
B) self monitoring
C) self-reference effect
E) self adjudication
Whenever Mike enters his family's den where the sports trophies that he has won. are on the mantle, his self-esteem is temporarily boosted. This is best described as caused by the fact that ________.
A) self-esteem is responsive to life events
B) self-esteem is the result of family members' opinions C) athletic skill is highly prized by males
D) people generally feel better about themselves in their own homes E) while self-esteem is temporarily boosted, it is very short-lived
Henry feels helpless at his job, feels that he cannot control his workday, and feels that he is useless, worthless, and inept. These characteristics would probably mean that Henry has ________.
A) low self-esteem
B) high locus of control
C) high self-insight
D) low locus of control
E) negative possible selves
Research indicates that self-esteem can be altered by ________. For these procedures to work, the individual ________ of the procedures.
A) respondent conditioning; must remain unaware
B) observational learning; must remain unaware
C) classical conditioning; may be either aware or unaware
D) operant conditioning; may be aware
E) observational learning; must remain aware
Recent research (Dijksterhuis, 2004) has shown that subliminal presentations of "I" or "me" with positive trait terms such as "nice" or "smart" will ________ implicit self-esteem and prevent ________ when negative false feedback is given later.
A) reduce; increases to self-esteem
B) reduce; reductions to self-esteem
C) increase; increases to self-esteem
D) increase; reductions to self-esteem
E) first increase, then reduce; all changes to self-esteem
Recent research has shown that, in young adults, 1) consistent early nurturing by parents ________ implicit self-esteem; 2) overprotective early parental behaviors ________ implicit self-esteem.
A) increases; reduces
B) increases; also, unexpectedly, increases
C) unexpectedly reduces; may reduce
D) increases; increases explicit, rather than
E) increases explicit, rather than; reduces both explicit and
An individual's view of the self may ________ to the extent that a reported high self-esteem level implies superiority to others.
A) be associated with lower rates of bullying
B) lead to exhibitionism
C) need to be frequently defended
D) cause an increase in introspection
E) need to be increased
Self-esteem is likely to be LOWEST in ________.
A) home-makers in India
B) career women in England
C) career men in the United States of America
D) politicians in any country
E) unemployed men in Finland
In the United States, gender differences in self-esteem are most pronounced among ________.
A) White lower class people
B) White upper class people
C) non-White middle class people
D) prison populations of all races
E) non-White lower class people
Gender differences in self-esteem begin to emerge during ________.
C) late adulthood
D) middle childhood
E) early adulthood
When we compare ourselves to others who are less capable, we are engaged in a(n) ________.
A) downward attribution
B) upward attribution
C) downward social comparison
D) upward social comparison
E) lateral social attribution
When we compare ourselves to others who are more capable, we are engaged in a(n) ________.
A) downward social comparison
B) lateral social attribution
C) downward attribution
D) upward social comparison
E) upward attribution
William plays softball on the weekends with a group of friends from work. He believes he is a better pitcher than George because batters have fewer hits when he pitches than when George pitches. This type of comparison can best be explained by________.
A) social existential theory
B) social identity theory
C) social skills theory
D) social comparison theory
E) social attribution theory
According to social comparison theory, we are most likely to compare our abilities to those of another person when ________. A) there is no objective measure to judge ourselves by B) the other that we are comparing ourselves to belongs to a different group C) available objective measures may result in decreased self-esteem D) available subjective measures may result in increased self-esteem E) the other that we are comparing ourselves to is of a higher status
The self-evaluation maintenance model suggests that we will ________ others who outperform us in an important area.
A) move closer to
B) strongly dislike
C) modify our social identity with
D) share an identity with
E) distance ourselves from
Betty and Vera are best friends who are both being treated for depression. Betty has come to believe that Vera's case of depression is much worse than her own case. Consequently, Betty is making a(n) ______ comparison that will likely ________ her self-esteem, and cause her to feel ________.A) downward; increase; closer to Vera B) upward; decrease; somewhat distant from Vera C) downward; decrease; closer to her other friends D) downward; increase; increasingly distant from Vera E) upward; increase; just about the same toward Vera
The self-evaluation maintenance model suggests that we will ________ others who perform more poorly than we do in an important area.
A) distance ourselves from
B) share an identity with
C) modify our social identity with
D) strongly dislike
E) move closer to
Social identity theory suggests that we will ________ others who outperform us on an important task, when our group identity is salient.
A) remain neutral to the ingroup and the out- group
B) move closer to out-group
C) distance ourselves from in-group
D) move closer to in-group
E) distance ourselves from out-group
Katherine and Amy are members of the same sorority at college and are members of the school's swim team. They have been trying to master a difficult dive from the high board at the college's swimming pool. Amy is showing faster improvement in the dive than Katherine is. If they compare their performance as individuals, the self-evaluation maintenance model suggests that ____. A) neither Katherine's nor Amy's liking for each other should change B) Amy should like Katherine more C) Katherine should dislike Amy more D) Katherine should like Amy more E) Amy should dislike Katherine more
Social identity theory suggests that we will ________ others who perform more poorly than we do on an important task, when our group identity is salient.
A) move closer to out-group
B) move closer to ingroup
C) remain neutral to the ingroup and the out-group D) distance ourselves from out-group
E) distance ourselves from ingroup
Katherine and Amy are members of the same sorority at college and are members of the school's swim team. They have been trying to master a difficult dive from the high board at the college's swimming pool. Amy is showing faster improvement in the dive than Katherine is. If they compare their performance as team mates and sorority sisters, social identity theory suggests that ____. A) Katherine should dislike Amy more B) Amy should dislike Katherine more C) Katherine should like Amy more
D) neither Katherine's nor Amy's liking for each other should change E) Amy should like Katherine more
Thomas has concluded that, on average, he is academically superior to the peers around him. As a result of this comparison, over the next six months, his self-esteem will ________.
A) be reliably higher
B) be increasingly lower
C) remain high unless his view is challenged by contrary evidence D) be high unless friends distance themselves from him
E) drop as soon as he stops making the self-serving comparisons
The above average effect is ________.
A) the tendency for above average people to feel positively about themselves
B) thinking that negative social feedback about ourselves is incorrect
C) the tendency to inflate our estimate of others' standing on most social traits
D) thinking that we are above average on most social traits
E) the tendency to think that significant others are above average on most social traits
As one of a number of ________, people are quite willing to avoid responsibility for their failures, but all too willing to accept credit for their successes.
A) self-serving biases
B) downward social comparisons
C) ingroup comparison heuristics
D) above-average effects
E) narcissistic tendencies
Studies investigating the cultural influences on the self have found that Americans tended to explain their failures as being ________, while Chinese students tended to explain their failures as being __.A) someone else's fault; caused by their own flaws
B) caused by their own flaws; someone else's fault
C) due to internal causes; due to external causes
D) unimportant; unfortunate results of bad luck
E) due to their group's (insufficient) effort; actually not failures, but really successes
Sylvia, a foreign-exchange student from China, rarely takes credit for her achievements in school, preferring to say that her accomplishments are due to her very good teachers. She usually explains her failures as being caused by her own faults, however. This reflects the importance of ________.
A) cultural differences in the self-serving bias
B) the self-effacing bias
C) gender differences in the self-serving bias
D) personal resistance to the above average effect E) the negative influence of overly high self-esteem
Prior to Taylor and Brown's (1988) important article, it had always been assumed that ________ is a cornerstone of good mental health.
A) being realistic
B) being open and communicative with others
C) a high sense of self-worth D) feeling fully in control
E) a supportive family of origin
Recent research on prejudice suggests that attributing a negative personal outcome to prejudice may be protective of one's self-esteem if ________, while it may be harmful to one's overall sense of psychological well-being if ________.
A) the prejudice is limited in duration; the prejudice is seen as being a fundamental part of the individual B) the prejudice is seen as pervasive; the prejudice is seen as being limited
C) the prejudice is seen as being limited; the prejudice is seen as pervasive
D) the prejudice is seen as being a fundamental part of the individual; the prejudice is limited in duration E) the prejudice is seen as being fundamental to the society at large; the prejudice is limited in duration
In an experiment, prior to receiving negative feedback from one of 20 interviewers, female participants were told 1) your interviewer gives everyone a negative evaluation, 2) your particular interviewer is sexist, and is only negative toward females, or 3) all 20 interviewers are sexist. Condition ________ was most damaging to participants because ________ were (was) seen as evidence of ________.
A) 3; the 20 sexist interviewers; pervasive sexism
B) 2; that one interviewer, in contrast to other interviewers, was sexist and; particular animosity toward females
C) 1; that one interviewer was negative toward everyone; the threat posed by one person's bottomless negativity
D) 2; the fact that one interviewer gave positive feedback only to males; amplifying the effects of negative feedback for women
E) 1; the fact that one interviewer was negative toward everyone; the idea that only one interviewer was necessary in order to injure self-esteem
Raza performed very poorly on an essay test in her Social Psychology class. Later, Raza learned that the professor had been particularly harsh in his grading that day because he had just received some upsetting news. Raza's sense of well-being is likely to ________.
A) be slightly damaged by the negative news, but Raza should recover fairly quickly
B) be protected from the news of the poor grade because she can make an external attribution as to the cause
C) be significantly improved because she can make an internal and stable attribution as to the cause of her poor grade
D) be greatly improved, but only if she can get the professor to reconsider her grade - a grade which she feels is undeserved
E) be seriously damaged by the negative news
________ occurs when an individual thinks that she or he may be judged in light of a negative stereotype about his or her social identity.
A) Performance deficit
B) Negativity bias
C) Hindsight bias
D) Stereotype anxiety
E) Stereotype threat
Stereotype threat causes decrements in performance, possibly because ________. A) stereotype threat enhances performance
B) stereotype threat decreases stress
C) stereotype threat increases rater bias
D) stereotype threat decreases performance motivation E) stereotype threat increases anxiety
Zoë, an attractive blond, is concerned that she might say something foolish in her college algebra class, thereby confirming the stereotype of the 'dumb blond'. As a result, Zoë rarely volunteers to solve problems on the board during class. This behavior can best be explained by ________.
A) stereotype threat
B) performance deficit
C) hindsight bias
D) stereotype anxiety
E) negativity bias
Recent research has demonstrated that women will frequently perform worse on a math test when men are present than when the same test is administered to a female-only group. This finding illustrates ________.
A) hindsight bias
B) gender differences in math abilities
C) stereotype threat
D) stereotype anxiety
E) performance uplift
Jackson is a former member of a street gang. He has recently started attending classes at a local community college, has made new friends who don't know about his former gang membership, and is spending time with a girl from an upper-middle-class background. Jackson heard his new friends and his girlfriend make several snide comments about gang members shortly before he took a test in one of the classes he shares with his new friends. In the light of the stereotype threat idea, this situation may cause Jackson to ________.
A) perform better on the test than he otherwise might have
B) perform worse on the test than he otherwise might have
C) drop out of college and return to his old street life
D) become prejudiced against his new friends and his girlfriend
E) regret that he's never mentioned his former gang membership to his new friends
Allen, a white high-school student, is competing with Kim Jong, an Asian-American student for a spot on the school's mathematics team. Allen is aware of recent research demonstrating that Asian students typically perform better on math problems than do American students. This knowledge could affect Allen's performance because ________.
A) stereotype threat can occur among dominant group members if a comparison is based on an aspect of performance on which the dominant group is expected to do better
B) stereotype threat can occur among dominant group members if a comparison is based on an aspect of performance on which the dominant group is expected to do worse
C) stereotype threat can occur among dominant group members only if other members of the dominant group are not present in the audience
According to recent research, white males performed less well on an "athletic performance task" when they expected to be compared to ________ males. When the same task was called a ________, white males performed better when they expected to be compared to ________.
A) Black; "sports intelligence task"; Black males
B) Black; "feelings about sports task"; white females
C) Black; "sports intelligence task"; other males in general D) Asian; "body kinesthetic task"; females in general
E) Black; "sports skills task"; Asian males
Bradford, a gay man, recently applied for a job as a fifth-grade teacher. Shortly before his second interview with school administrators, which was to include some interaction time with current students, Bradford completed an on-line survey that included questions about his sexual orientation. It was explained that the survey was completely unrelated to the school system, and that the orientation items were being asked by a gay-rights organization. Bradford did not think that he was particularly nervous or anxious during his interactions with the students. Recent research (Bosson, Haymovitz and Pinel, 2004) suggests that ________.
A) non-verbal measures of anxiety may have been higher than otherwise because the on-line survey may have made Bradford's homosexuality more salient
B) verbal self-report measures of anxiety may have been lower than otherwise because the on-line survey may have made Bradford less self-conscious of his sexual orientation
C) verbal self-report measures of anxiety may have been higher than otherwise because the on-line survey may have made Bradford more self-conscious of his sexual orientation
D) non-verbal measures of anxiety may have been lower than otherwise because the on-line survey may have made Bradford's homosexuality less important
E) verbal self-report measures and behavioral measures of anxiety are unreliable indicators of an individual's state
When using asynchronous forms of online communications, research shows that people feel more ________.
Some studies ask people to compare their "past self" with their "present self." These studies are examining ________ memory.
While self-efficacy is generally a good thing, some people may feel ________ over events, even when it is objectively impossible.
Lower self-esteem among women across cultures is largely due to the ________ women receive from others
The process of comparing our own performance to that of someone who is less capable is known as ________ social comparison.
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