Cephalocaudal trend: organized pattern of physical growth and motor control the proceeds from head to tail. Cephalo=head. Caudal=tail Proximodistal trend: organized pattern of physical growth and motor control that proceeds from center of body outward. Proximo=near. Distal=far.
What are neurons?
Individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit info.
What are glial cells (glias)?
Cells that provide structural support nourishment, and insulation for neurons.
What is a synapse?
The junction between the sending neuron and the receiving neuron/muscle.
What is synaptic pruning?
The loss of connective fibers by seldom-stimulated neurons, thereby returning them to an unconnected state so they can support the development of future skills.
What is myelination?
The process in which neural fibers are coated with an insulating fatty sheath called myelin that improves the efficiency of message transfer.
What does "localization of brain function" mean?
Different parts of the brain carry out different functions.
Describe brain plasticity.
The capacity of various parts of the cerebral cortex to take over functions of a damaged region. Plasticity declines as functions of the cerebral cortex localize more with age.
What are some influences of early physical growth?
During the first two years because the baby's brain and body are growing so rapidly.
Breast vs. Bottle feeding. Who wins?
What is Marasmus?
A disease that appears within the first year of life. It is caused by a diet low in all essential nutrients. It leads to a wasted condition of the body.
What is Kwashiorkor?
A disease that appears within the first 1-3 years of age. It is caused by a diet low in protein.
What are some symptoms of Kwashiorkor?
Enlarged belly, swollen feet, loss of hair, skin rash, and irritable, listless behavior.
What is "nonorganic failure to thrive"?
A growth disorder that results from the lack of parental love that is usually present by 18 months of age. The symptoms are the same as Marasmus, but no organic or biological cause can be found for the baby's appearance.
Describe classical conditioning.
A form of learning that involves associating a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response. Once the baby's neurons make the connection between the two stimuli, the new stimulus produces the behavior by itself.
What is operant conditioning?
A form of learning in which a behavior becomes more or less probable depending on whether it is reinforced or punished.
What is habituation?
The gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to repetitive stimulation. (Loss of interest).
Newborn babies have the primitive ability to learn through ____________.
Name and describe the two types of motor development.
1. Gross motor development- control over actions that help infants get around in the environment. 2. Fine motor development- the ability to use fingers, hands, and arms together to reach, grasp and manipulate objects.
What are the two types of perceptual development?
Hearing and vision.
What is visual development supported by?
Rapid maturation of the eye and visual centers in the cerebral cortex. Baby is 20/20 by 6 months.
What was learned in the Campos experiments?
Babies that cannot crawl, can see depth, but do not fear it. Babies that can crawl, see and fear depth.
When does sensitivity to binocular depth cues emerge?
Between 2 and 3 months.
When do babies develop sensitivity to pictorial depth cues?
At what age can babies begin to respond to motion cues?
Do infants prefer to look at patterned or plain stimuli?
Patterned. They prefer more complex patterns as they age.
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