any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice.
–When people learn anything, some part of their brain is physically changed to record what they have learned.
–Any kind of change in the way an organism behaves is learning.
controlled by genetic blueprint.
Russian physiologist (person who studies the workings of the body) who discovered classical conditioning through his work on digestion in dogs.
learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex.
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
a naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary response. –Unconditioned means “unlearned” or “naturally occurring” – drooling!!
•Unconditioned response (UCR)
an involuntary response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus.
•Conditioned stimulus (CS)
stimulus that becomes able to produce a learned reflex response by being paired it with the original unconditioned stimulus.
–Conditioned means “learned.”
–A neutral stimulus can become a conditioned stimulus when paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
•Conditioned response (CR)
learned reflex response to a conditioned stimulus.–Sometimes called a conditioned reflex.
•In Pavlov’s classic experiments, the repeated presentations of the bell along with the food led to the acquisition step of the classical conditioning process.
•Remember, the bell must ring before the dog gets the biscuit!
Classical Conditioning Concepts
1.The CS (neutral) must come before the UCS. 2. The CS and UCS must come very close together in time—ideally, only several seconds apart. 3. The neutral stimulus must be paired with the UCS several times, often many times, before conditioning can take place.
the tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response.
the disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (in classical conditioning) or the removal of a reinforcer (in operant conditioning).
the reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred.
a dog might be conditioned to salivate to the sound of a bell, then a light would be flashed as the bell was sounded – the dog’s eventual response to the light is a higher-order conditioned response.
•Conditioned emotional response (CER)
emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli, such as a fear of dogs or the emotional reaction that occurs when seeing an attractive person.
–CERs may lead to phobias – irrational fear responses.
John Watson and Rosalie Rayner
•1. To eliminate Little Albert’s conditioned fear they could have shown a rat many times without a loud noise (UCS) following.
•2. Even after Little Albert’s fear had been extinguished – most likely the fear would come back – spontaneous recovery.
•Conditioned taste aversion
development of a nausea or aversive response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by a nausea reaction, occurring after only one association.
modern theory in which classical conditioning is seen to occur because the conditioned stimulus provides information or an expectancy about the coming of the unconditioned stimulus.
The CS must predict the UCS or conditioning does not occur.
voluntary behavior learned through consequences
•Thorndike’s Law of Effect
responses followed by pleasurable consequences are repeated –Thorndike’s puzzle box
the learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to responses.
•Thorndike’s Law of Effect
law stating that if a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated, and if followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend not to be repeated.
•Behaviorist; wanted to study only observable, measurable behavior.
•Gave “operant conditioning” its name.
–Operant - any behavior that is voluntary.
•Learning depends on what happens after the response — the consequence.
any event or stimulus, that when following a response, increases the probability that the response will occur again.
any reinforcer that is naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic biological need, such as hunger, thirst, or touch – A cupcake!
any reinforcer that becomes reinforcing after being paired with a primary reinforcer, such as praise, tokens, or gold stars – Certificate of achievement!
the reinforcement of a response by the addition or experiencing of a pleasurable stimulus.
the reinforcement of a response by the removal, escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus.
Different Types of Reinforcement
•Positive – addition of pleasurable stimulus
•Negative – removal, escape or avoidance of aversive stimulus
Different Types of Punishment
•Application – addition of unpleasant stimulus
•Removal – removal of pleasurable stimulus
Punishment by removal vs. negative reinforcement
•Severe punishment, fear and anxiety
•Severe punishment and avoidance
•Modeling of aggression
the reinforcement of simple steps in behavior that lead to a desired, more complex behavior.
Applied Behavior Analysis often used with autistic children
small steps in behavior, one after the other, that lead to a particular goal behavior.
occurs if the behavior (response) is not reinforced.
(reoccurrence of a once extinguished response) also happens in operant conditioning.
•Partial reinforcement effect
the tendency for a response that is reinforced after some, but not all, correct responses to be very resistant to extinction.
the reinforcement of each and every correct response.
FR: same number of desired responses required
VR: number of responses required varies for each event
FI: always same time before reinforcement opportunity
VI: Reinforcement possibilities after varying amounts of time
•Fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement
schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same. 10 bar presses then a food pellet
•Variable ratio schedule of reinforcement
schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is different for each trial or event.
•Fixed interval schedule
of reinforcement schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same.
•Variable interval schedule of reinforcement
schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is different for each trial or event.
any event or object that, when following a response, makes that response less likely to happen again.
•Punishment by application
the punishment of a response by the addition or experiencing of an unpleasant stimulus.
•Punishment by removal
when the key is removed, it results in a decrease in the probability of driving.
How to Make Punishment More Effective
1.Punishment should immediately follow the behavior it is meant to punish. 2.Punishment should be consistent.
3.Punishment of the wrong behavior should be paired, whenever possible, with reinforcement of the right behavior.
4.Example: Your 2-year-old son screams for candy in the supermarket. One day you yell: “Shut Up!” Your son stops! Principle of Operant Conditioning: Punishment to suppress the screaming – you are negatively reinforced by the cessation of screaming.
any stimulus, such as a stop sign or a doorknob, that provides the organism with a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement
Examples of Negative Reinforcement
•Your girlfriend is afraid of spiders and can’t even watch them on TV since she then experiences a panic attack. Your girlfriend is = most likely negatively reinforced for avoiding looking at the spider because she is rewarded by her lessened anxiety. (Avoidance of a panic attack)
Examples of Various Kinds of Reinforcement
•1. If you get $10.00 every time you get A’s on your tests you are partially reinforced.
•2. You are a seamstress and every time you complete five shirts, you get $5.00. You will most likely perform a rapid shirt completion with a short break after each five completed shirts.
•tendency for an animal’s behavior to revert to genetically controlled patterns. –Each animal comes into the world (and the laboratory) with certain genetically determined instinctive patterns of behavior already in place. –These instincts differ from species to species. –There are some responses that simply cannot be trained into an animal regardless of conditioning.
the use of operant conditioning techniques to bring about desired changes in behavior.
type of behavior modification in which desired behavior is rewarded with tokens.
a form of mild punishment by removal in which a misbehaving animal, child, or adult is placed in a special area away from the attention of others.
–Essentially, the organism is being “removed” from any possibility of positive reinforcement in the form of attention.
•Applied behavior analysis (ABA)
modern term for a form of behavior modification that uses shaping techniques to mold a desired behavior or response.
Cognitive Learning Theory
•Early days of learning – focus was on behavior.
•1950s and more intensely in the 1960s, many psychologists were becoming aware that cognition, the mental events that take place inside a person’s mind while behaving, could no longer be ignored.
•Edward Tolman – early cognitive scientist. •
Tolman’s Classic Study On Latent Learning
•Edward Tolman’s best-known experiments in learning involved teaching three groups of rats the same maze, one at a time (Tolman & Honzik, 1930).
–Group 1 – rewarded each time at end of maze.
•Learned maze quickly.
–Group 2 – in maze every day; only rewarded on 10th day. •Demonstrated learning of maze almost immediately after receiving reward. –Group 3 – never rewarded.
•Did not learn maze well.
•Latent learning - learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful.
the tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past.
expanded his theory of learned helplessness to explain depression.
the sudden perception of relationships among various parts of a problem, allowing the solution to the problem to come quickly. –Cannot be gained through trial-and-error learning alone. –“Aha” moment.
learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior. Children often learns aggressive behavior from parents/tv.
referring to the observation that learning can take place without actual performance of the learned behavior.
Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiment
–aggressive and non-aggressive model
•viewers of aggression played more aggressively
•model’s behavior imitated even in absence of reward
To learn through observation, must first attend to model
Learner must be able to retain what was observed
Learner must be able to reproduce actions of model
Learner must be motivated to reproduce observed behaviors
•Training a cat to use the toilet will involve:
–Preparing “the training arena.”
–Positive reinforcement on a variable schedule.
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