Using Evidence Effectively The Persuasive Use of Evidence Apply the STAR Criteria for Evidence (Richard Fulkerson) Sufficiency of Evidence: The more the audience is skeptical, the more evidence one needs If one has too little evidence, then they may be accused of hasty generalization A reasoning fallacy where a person makes a conclusion based on only one or two instances Too much evidence makes an argument become tedious Typicality of Evidence: Must get typical and reasonable evidence Accuracy of Evidence: The audience must believe the writer?s credibility, and the credibility must be true for the work to be ethical Relevance of Evidence: Reader must consider the evidence to be relevant to the issue Use sources that the reader trusts Choose data that the readers will trust It?s good to know the political biases of sources Rhetorical Understanding of Evidence Kinds of Evidence Data from Personal Experience: allows reader to identify with the writer Data from Observation of Field Research: ?scientific credibility? Data from Interviews, Questionnaires, Surveys: Enhances the sufficiency and typicality of evidence Testimony: Researched evidence is often very powerful Statistical Data: powerful snapshots from a wide database Hypothetical Examples, Cases, and Scenarios: strong imaginative appeal Reasoned Sequence of Ideas: sometimes arguments are supported with a reasoned sequence of ideas rather than with concrete facts or other forms of empirical evidence Angle of Vision and the Selection and Framing of Evidence Become more aware of the writer?s choices when using evidence to support a claim Based on our values as people This creates a writer?s ?angle of vision? Rhetorical Strategies for Framing evidence Strategies for framing evidence Controlling the space given to supporting versus contrary evidence Emphasizing a detailed story versus presenting lots of facts and statistics Providing contextual and interpretive comments when presenting data Putting contrary evidence in subordinate positions Choosing Labels and names that guide the reader?s response to data Using images to guide the reader?s response to data Revealing the value system that determines the writer?s selection and framing of data Special Strategies for Framing Statistical Evidence Raw numbers vs. Percentages Median vs. Mean Unadjusted numbers vs. adjusted numbers Base point for statistical comparisons Gathering Evidence Creating a Plan for Gathering Evidence Gathering Data from Interviews Gathering Data from Surveys or Questionnares
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