Chapter 6: Specific program design Lauren Humphrey & Sam Raticoff October 1, 2009 What is a specific program? A specific program can be defined as a set of activities and their corresponding interactions that are designed to achieve predetermined goals selected for a given group of clients (p.139). Implemented and evaluated independently of all other specific programs. Identification of Specific Program Needs Addresses 3 issues Functional Intervention Leisure education Recreation Participation Specific Programs are selected and developed that relate to different categories of client need. Importance of Goals and Objectives Once the general topic of a specific program is selected, objectives will be derived and stated. Activities Activity refers to the action, content, or media presented to the clients to address the objectives and, it is hoped, to achieve the desired outcome. Specific Program Requires 3 Stages of Design: pg. 141 The Program Plan The Implementation Plan The Evaluation Plan The Program Plan Consists of 5 Parts: Statement of Purpose Terminal Performance Objectives (TPOs) Enabling Objectives (EOs) Performance Measures (PMs) Content and Process Descriptions (CPDs) State of Purpose Concise Brief Statement of Intent Example: To provide activities in which clients acquire, improve, and utilize social interaction skills that can be used within a variety of leisure contexts. Program Titles Terminal Performance Objectives (TPOs) Developed after Statement of Purpose Give direction General outcome statement ?To demonstrate? Example of TPO Statement of Purpose: To provide activities in which clients acquire, improve, and utilize social interaction skills that can be used within a variety of leisure contexts. What is an example of a TPO of this statement of purpose? To demonstrate ability to initiate, maintain, and end conversations with peers. To demonstrate ability to be assertive in selected situations. Enabling Objectives (EOs) ??the specific targeted behaviors around which the rest of the program system is designed? (p.146) Used for measurement purposes IMPORTANT and ESSENTIAL!!!! Examples of EO What is an example of an abstract EO with the TPO stating: To demonstrate ability to select clothing appropriate for a variety of situations. EO1: To demonstrate knowledge of a variety of clothing styles. EO2: To demonstrate ability to match different clothing with different situations. Performance Measures (PM) The performance measure is a statement of the exact behavior that will be taken as evidence that the intent of the EO has been achieved or accomplished (p. 151). Behavioral Objectives 3 objectives EO vs. Performance Measures 3 reasons to separate them EOs identify target behavioral areas of concern PMs have issues of clarity in reading Full intent of a EO cannot be incorporated into a PM Writing Performance Measures Basic guidelines? Look for and select the least amount of behavior that is representative of the intent of the enabling objective. Observe and measure behavior in the most natural environment or situation possible. These two principles are critical to good program design and evaluation as well as vital to the acceptance of systems programs by implementers. Three Aspects of a Performance Measure Conditions: the circumstance under which the desired behavior will occur or be observed. Behavior: what evidence the client will provide to demonstrate completion or competence in the desired knowledge, skill or ability. Criteria: Indicate how well the client must perform the behavior in order for it to be considered ?accomplished? or ?achieved.? Content and Process Descriptions Content: the substance or material upon which the program focuses to achieve the intent of the EO. Factors: Type of client Age characteristics Size of intended group Availability of resources Length of program Content Concrete tasks Behaviors Activities Necessary to accomplish the intent (p. 156) Content Task Analysis: select the content that appropriately covers all necessary or desired aspects of the specified behavior. Indirect EOs: What activities Discussion Topics ?MUST BE PRESENTED TO COVER THE TOPIC ADEQUATELY Content Designing Content: technical and creative procedure Guidelines to follow? Focus on the content description on the full intent of the EO NOT the PM Determine a level of content information Be consistent with that level ?for ALL EOs throughout the system. Content and Process Descriptions Process: a detailed breakdown of what the therapeutic recreation specialist will do with the content of that particular EO. Refers to the way the content is presented to the clients Figure 6.6 p. 160 Factors in Selecting Process Considerations for selecting the best process: Efficiency of technique to help clients reach outcomes Effectiveness of technique to help clients reach outcomes Appropriateness for client group Alignment with program content Efficiency of Technique Time as a scarce commodity Results with the least amount of energy, time, and resources Example: ?Explain, demonstrate, practice? Effectiveness of Technique Results and ability to achieve the desired outcomes Multiple facilitation techniques Inappropriate techniques reduce effectiveness Targeted Client Population Diverse facilitation techniques Appropriate selection of techniques for different groups Must consider? Age Disability group Size of group Program Content Intervention strategies and processes selected must be appropriate for the clients Must match the content of the program Program designers often confuse ?content? and ?process? Contributions to selection process: Common sense Logic Experience Implementation Plan Composed of two separate but important and interrelated parts: Sequence Sheet Implementation Description See Figures 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10 for examples of sequence and performance sheets! Sequence Sheet Section-by-section description on how the program is meant to be implemented Time allocations (when/how observation is achieved) Two different types: Set-number-of-sessions Continuous-session program Performance Sheet Record the attainment of objectives Tool to assist the designer in achieving a well-balanced and interesting program See Appendices A and B (p. 430) Implementation Description Specified implementation description Refers to overall strategy for implementing the entire program Contains information in the following areas: Description of clients whom the program is designed Description of the staffing requirements Description of the required equipment and facilities Description of the number, length, frequency of program sessions Description of the Population Specify intended population Characteristics important relative to the specific program Actual limitations or abilities description i.e. Basic swimming skills as a prerequisite for a canoeing class Refer to Appendices A & B Description of Staff Central to the effective implementation and outcomes of the designed program Example: One therapeutic recreation specialist with knowledge of physical disabilities, bowling, methods of adapting and modifying bowling equipment and procedures, and ability to use appropriate teaching techniques and physical assistive techniques. One adult volunteer or staff assistant for each alley used. Facilities, Equipment, & Supplies Necessary facilities and objects Master list of all needed items at the beginning of the program materials Refer to Appendices A and B
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