compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen and arranged as strands of amino acids. Some amino acids also contain the element sulfur.
the building blocks of protein. Each has an amine group at one end, an acid group at the other, and a distinctive side chain.
the nitrogen containing portion of an amino acid
the unique chemical structure attached to the backbone of each amino acid that differentiates one amino acid from another.
essential amino acids
amino acids that either cannot be synthesized at all by the body or cannot be synthesized in amounts sufficient to meet psychological need. Also called indispensable amino acids
conditionally essential amino acid
an amino acid that is normally non-essential but must be supplied by the diet in special circumstances when the need for it exceeds the body's ability to produce it.
a bond that connects one amino acid with another, forming a link in a protein chain.
a type of body protein from which connective tissues such as scars, tendons, ligaments and the foundations of bones and teeth are made.
proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process; protein catalysts
the globular protein of red blood cells, whose iron atoms carry oxygen around the body via the bloodstream
the irreversible change in a protein's folded shape brought about by heat, acids, bases, alcohol, salts of heavy metals or other agents.
protein fragments of many (more than 10) amino acids bonded together. A peptide is a strand of amino acids. A strand of between 4 and 10 amino acids is called an oligopeptide.
protein fragments that are 2 amino acids long
protein fragments that are 3 amino acids long
the continuous break down and synthesis of body proteins involving the recycling of amino acids
a substance that speeds the rate of chemical reaction without itself being permanently altered in the process. All enzymes are catalysts
chemical messengers secreted by a number of body organs in response to conditions that require regulation. Each hormone affects a specific organ or tissue and elicits a specific response.
principle peptide hormone of the thyroid gland that regulates the body's rate of energy use.
compound related in structure to (and made from) the amino acid tryptophan. It serves as one of the brain's principal neurotransmitters.
large proteins of the blood, produced by the immune system in response to an invasion of the body by foreign substances (antigens). Antibodies combine with and inactivate the antigens
protection from or resistance to a disease or infection by development of antibodies and by the actions of cells and tissues in response to a threat
fluid and electrolyte balance
the distribution of fluid and dissolved particles among body compartments
swelling of body tissue cased by leakage of fluid from the blood vessels; seen in protein deficiency
compounds that release hydrogens in a watery solution
compounds that accept hydrogens from solutions
equilibrium between acid and base concentrations in the body fluids.
compounds that help keep a solution's acidity or alkalinity constant
the condition of excess acid in the blood. indicated by a below-normal pH
(osis means too much in the blood)
the condition of excess base in the blood, indicated by an above-normal blood pH
principal nitrogen-excretion product of protein metabolism; generated mostly by removal of amine groups from unneeded amino acids or from amino acids being sacrificed to a need for energy.
the amount of nitrogen consumed compared with the amount excreted in a given time period
dietary proteins containing all the essential amino acids in relatively the same amounts that human beings require. They may also contain nonessential amino acids.
limiting amino acid
an essential amino acid that is present in dietary protein in an insufficient amount, thereby limiting the body's ability to build protein
two or more proteins whose amino acid assortments complement each other in such a way that the essential amino acids missing from one are supplied by the other.
the strategy of combining two incomplete protein sources so that the amino acids in one food make up for those lacking in the other food. Such protein combinations are sometimes called complementary proteins.
plants of the bean, pea and lentil family that have roots with nodules containing special bateria. These bacteria can trap nitrogen from the air in the soil and make it into compounds that become part of the plant's seeds. The seeds are rich in protein compared with those of most plant foods.
a low-protein staple food that provides abundant starch energy to many of the world's people; fufu is made by pounding or grinding root vegetables or refined grains and cooking them to a smooth semisolid consistency.
the world's most widespread malnutrition problem, including both marasmus and kwashiorkor and states in which they overlap; also called protein-calorie malnutrition
the physiological craving for food; the progressive discomfort, illness, and pain resulting from the lack of food
a form of PEM related to protein malnutrition and infections with a set of recognizable symptoms. such as edema.
a form of PEM related to protein malnutrition and infections, with a set of recognizable symptoms, such as edema.
an infection of the digestive tract that causes diarrhea.
An amino acid produced as an intermediate compound during amino acid metabolism. A buildup of homosysteine in the blood is associated with deficiencies of B vitamins and may increase the risk of diseases.
a disease of older people characterized by porous and fragile bones that easily break, leading to pain, infirmity, and death
textured vegetable protein
processed soybean protein used in productes formulated to look and taste like meat, fish, or poultry
a curd made from soybean that is rich in protein, often rich in calcium, and variable in fat content; used in many Asian and vegetarian dishes in place of meat
Want to see the other 46 Flashcards in Ch 6 Terms: The Proteins and Amino Acids?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!