PGS 101 ? Szeli Chapter 7 ? Memory OBJECTIVE 7.1 ? Define memory; explain the three processes of memory?encoding, storage, and retrieval; and list the three stages of memory?sensory, short-term, and long-term. Memory ? an active system that receives, stores, organizes, alters, and recovers information. Encoding ? incoming information is converted into a form in which it will be retained in memory; changed into a usable form. Storage ? information is held in the system of memory for later use. Retrieval ? information is recovered from memory storage to be put into use. OBJECTIVE 7.2 ? Describe sensory memory, including icons and echoes and how information is transferred from sensory memory to short-term memory. Sensory Memory ? first stage of memory, which holds an exact record of incoming information (what is seen or heard) for a few seconds or less. An icon is a fleeting mental image, or visual representation. EX: when you look at something and close your eyes or turn away, the image is still in your mind and it can still be seen very briefly. An echo is a brief flurry of activity in the auditory system; a brief continuation of sensory activity in the auditory system after a sound is heard. EX: When you listen to someone talk, the words repeat in your mind as you hear them. Sensory information is transferred to short-term memory through selective attention ? focusing on a selected portion of sensory input. This controls what info. moves onto STM. EX: when two people talk at the same time, you tend to focus on one or the other. Whichever one you are listening to more, his/her info (things said) goes into STM, or has a higher chance of getting there. OBJECTIVE 7.3 ? Describe short-term memory, including its capacity, how information is encoded, the permanence of short-term memory and its susceptibility to interference, and the concept of working memory. Short-Term Memory ? system used to hold small amounts of information for relatively brief time periods; has a small capacity for storage ? 5-9 slots for information. Often encoded and stored phonetically (by sound), but can also be encoded and stored as images. EX: Introduced to Tim, you forget his name but may call him by a name that sounds similar, such as Jim. In another case you may forget the name, but remember the person?s face. Information in STM is quickly ?dumped? and forever lost or forgotten if it is not coded into long-term memory, as new information is received, replacing the items in the memory slots. STM is very sensitive to interruption or interference. When some one or something takes your attention away from dialing a phone number you just got, you forget the number as you are dialing and turn to the distraction. It is very difficult to multi-task in STM. Working Memory ? another name for STM, especially as it is used for thinking and problem solving. EX: when doing mental arithmetic, put together a puzzle, follow directions, or read a book. OBJECTIVE 7.4 ? Describe long-term memory in terms of permanence, capacity and the basis on which information is stored; define dual memory; and explain how one?s culture affects memory. Long-Term Memory ? system used for relatively permanent storage of meaningful and important information; a lasting storehouse for knowledge. Capacity is nearly limitless and info. is never forgotten. Information in LTM is stored on the basis of meaning. If an error is made, it is still probably related to the meaning. EX: when trying to recall a word, such as barn, from a list, it is more likely that you will say or think of shed or farm because they are similar and related. Dual Memory ? STM and LTM working together as one system to store and use information. As information is first obtained, it goes through STM. Storage in STM is limited, so as new info. comes in unimportant info. is forgotten or tossed away, and meaningful/ personally important info. goes into LTM. When info. or knowledge in LTM is going to be used it is taken or retrieved from LTM and put back into STM for use. After use, the info./knowledge is stored back into LTM. OBJECTIVE 7.5 ? Explain the ?magic number? seven; describe chunking; and explain how the two types of rehearsal affect memory. Information Bits ? meaningful units of information, such as numbers, letters, words, or phrases. The ?magic number? 7 (plus or minus 2) is the number of ?slots? or ?bins? that STM is limited to. The average number of bits an individual can store in STM. Information Chunks ? information bits grouped into larger units. Chunking recodes (reorganizes) info. into units that are already in LTM. It is the key to making good use of STM. EX: TVI BMUS NY MCA can be chunked into TV, IBM, USN, YMCA which are familiar abbreviations. Maintenance Rehearsal ? silently repeating or mentally reviewing information to hold it in STM. This type of rehearsal allows you to ?see? the info. you just got many times. The more it is repeated or rehearsed, the greater the chances of it being stored into LTM. Elaborative Rehearsal ? rehearsal that links new information with existing memories and knowledge stored in LTM. This makes information more meaningful. OBJECTIVE 7.6 ? Discuss the permanence of memory, including the work of Penfield and the Loftuses; explain constructive processing and pseudo-memories; and describe the effects of hypnosis on memory and how a cognitive interview can improve eyewitness memories. Memories is LTM are only relatively permanent. There are no such things as perfect, eternal memories. Most become blurred, imaginary, and inaccurate. As new memories are stored into LTM, older ones are often updated, changed, lost, or revised. Penfield found that the brain?s cerebral cortex has points which can be stimulated to produce memories, which raised questions about whether LTM memories are permanent. Loftus and Palmer showed people a filmed car accident. They asked some watchers how fast they thought the cars were going when they ?smashed? into each other. Some were asked using different words such as ?bump? or ?contacted.? They were asked 1 week later if they saw any glass. The ones who were asked about the cars that ?smashed? said they saw glass when there actually wasn?t any. Constructive Processing ? reorganizing or updating memories on the basis of logic, reasoning, or the addition of new info.; memories for things that never happened are created by the new info. EX: People went to Disney resort and shown fake ads with Bugs Bunny. Later, some of them claimed they saw Bugs at Disneyland. Bugs is from Warner Brothers. Pseudomemories ? false memories created through constructive processing. EX: eye witnesses ? witness describes man she saw on TV when a rapist broke into her home. She was watching TV when the event happened, so she gave a false description; her pseudomemory of what the rapist looked like. OBJECTIVE 7.7 ? Briefly describe how long-term memories are organized, including the network model and redintegrative memories. Memories in LTM are arranged according to rules, images, categories, symbols, similarity, formal meaning, or personal meaning Network Model ? model of memory that views it as an organized system of linked information; the ?farther? apart ideas are, the longer chain of associates needed to connect them. Redintigrative Memories ? memories that are reconstructed or expanded by starting with one memory and then following chains of association to other, related memories; spread through ?branches? of memory networks; one memory serves as a cue to trigger many others. OBJECTIVE 7.8 ? Differentiate procedural (skill) memory from declarative (fact) memory and define and give examples of the two kinds of declarative memory (semantic and episodic). Procedural Memory (skill memory) ? long-term memories of conditioned responses and learned skills; can be fully expressed only as actions; represent the more basic ?automatic? elements of conditioning, learning, and memory. EX: typing, driving, sports. Declarative Memory (fact memory) ? part of LTM containing specific factual information; expressed as words or symbols; person of amnesia lacks declarative memory; divided into semantic and episodic EX: names, faces, words, dates, and ideas. Semantic Memory ? records impersonal knowledge about the world; serves as a mental dictionary or encyclopedia of basic knowledge. EX: names of objects, basic math skills, days of week, months of year, words and language. Episodic Memory ? records personal experiences that are linked with specific times and places; ?autobiographical? record of personal experiences; stores life events (or ?episodes?); about the what, where, and when of our lives. EX: wedding, birthdays, accidents, children being born. *In general, episodic memories are more easily forgotten than semantic memories because new info. or events continuously pours into episodic memory. Procedural memory is about the ?how to? and declarative memory is about the facts and events (formulas, stories, weddings, graduation). OBJECTIVE 7.9 ? Explain the tip-of-the tongue state and the feeling of knowing; and describe and give examples of each of the following ways of measuring memory: a. recall, including the serial position effect; b. recognition, including a comparison to recall and the concept of distractors; and c. relearning, including the concept of savings score. Tip-of-the-Tongue State ? feeling that a memory is available but not quite retrievable; answer is just out of reach. Feeling of Knowing ? closely related to the TOT state, when people can tell beforehand if they are likely to remember something. EX: when contestants? faces light up just before they are allowed to answer on a game show Recall ? to supply or reproduce memorized info. with a minimum of external cues; direct retrieval of facts or info.; often require a verbatim (word-for-word) memory. EX: study poem and recite without looking, fill-in-the-blank questions, answer an essay with facts, recalling a list of items. Serial Position Effect ? the tendency to make the most errors in remembering the middle items of an ordered list; first and last items are recalled much easier than those is the middle. Recognition ? ability to correctly identify previously learned information. *often superior to recall ? ?may forget a name, but never forget a face? ? names are recalled, faces/ appearances are recognized *Superiority depends on distractors ? false items included with an item to be recognized ? used. ^Recognition memory may be poor if distractors are very similar to correct item. ^Reverse can occur when only 1 looks like the correct choice, or description ? false positive, or false sense of recognition. EX: multiple choice tests, photographs, suspect line-ups. Relearning ? learning again something that was previously learned; used to measure memory of prior learning; the most sensitive measure of memory. *Savings score ? amount of time saved when relearning info. ^The memory still exists if there is a savings in time ? less time to recall or recite info. the second time around EX: memorize a list of names in 1 hour. 2 years later, it is memorized again, but in only 45 mins. There is a savings score of 15 mins = 25%, showing the memory still exists. OBJECTIVE 7.12 ? Explain Ebbinghaus? curve of forgetting; and discuss the following explanations of forgetting: a. encoding failure; b. decay of memory traces; c. disuse, including why this explanation is questioned; d. cue-dependent forgetting; e. state-dependent learning; f. retroactive and proactive interference; and g. repression, including the recovered memory/false memory debate and how repression differs from suppression. Curve of Forgetting ? graph that shows the amount of memorized information remembered after varying lengths of time; forgetting is rapid at first and is followed by a slow decline; the curve for meaningful info. is stretched for a longer time. Encoding Failure ? failure to store sufficient info. for a useful memory. *Not paying attention and/or taking notes. Decay of Memory Traces ? fading or weakening of memory traces ? physical changes in nerve cells or brain activity that take place when memories are stored. *Decay is factor in loss of sensory memory, as well as STM. *Will forget some items in a list if it takes too long to repeat or recall. Disuse ? theory that memory traces weaken when memories are not periodically used or retrieved. *Cannot fully explain forgetting because doesn?t account for memories recovered through redintegration, relearning, and priming. *Fails to explain why some unused and unrehearsed memories decay and some are carried for life. Cue-Dependent Forgetting ? when memory cues (stimuli associated with a memory) are missing when the time comes to retrieve info. State-Dependent Learning ? memory influenced by one?s bodily state at the time of learning and at the time of retrieval. Improved memory occurs when the bodily states match. *If you did something while drugged, such as lost your wallet, you may be able to remember where you put it when drugged again. *Same thing applies with emotional states. ^Emotional cues can help recall lists and bring back memories related to the emotional state. Retroactive Interference ? the tendency for new memories to interfere with the retrieval of old memories; new learning inhibits retrieval of old learning. *Sleeping after studying can help retain memories. *Doing anything else inhibits retention, such as reading and writing about things that aren?t related to what you are studying, and watching TV. Proactive Interference ? tendency for old memories to interfere with the retrieval of newer memories; prior learning inhibits recall of new/later learning. *Study for psychology first and history second. When tested for history, you recall more information from psychology. Repression ? motivated forgetting; passively or unconciously pushing unwanted memories out of awareness. *Painful, threatening, and embarrassing memories are held out of consciousness. *People prone to repression tend to be extremely sensitive to emotional events. ^Use repression to protect themselves from threatening thoughts Suppression ? an active, conscious effort to put something out of mind or to keep it from awareness. *Done by not thinking about something, but the memory is still retrievable when wanted. *Active suppression may become true repression after a length of suppressing the memory and keeping cues out of mind. OBJECTIVE 7.13 ? Describe flashbulb memories, retrograde and anterograde amnesia, and the role of consolidation in memory, including the effects of ECS. Flashbulb Memories ? memories created at times of high emotion that seem especially vivid; refers to images that seem to be frozen in memory at times of personal tragedy, accident, or other emotionally significant event. *Most often formed when events are surprising, important, or emotional. *Frequently associated with public tragedies. *Can also include memories of positive events. *Very detailed and often focus primarily on reactions to an event. *Not always accurate because public events reappear many times in the news, which highlights them in memory OBJECTIVE 7.15 ? Describe each of the following in terms of how it can improve memory: a. knowledge of results; b. recitation; c. rehearsal; d. selection; e. organization; f. whole versus part learning; g. serial position effect; h. cues; i. spaced practice; j. sleep; k. hunger; m. extension of memory intervals; l. review; and m. strategies to aid recall, including the cognitive interview. Knowledge of Results ? when feedback allows us to check progress; feedback is rewarding. Recitation ? summarizing aloud while you are learning; forces the practice of retrieving information; remember what was read by restating in own words. Rehearsal ? mentally reviewing information learned; elaborate to be more effective ? make connections to existing knowledge. Selection ? selective marking and reading in texts; use marginal notes to further summarize ideas. Organization ? summarize more and chunk info. into groups. Whole vs. Part Learning ? whole learning for fairly short, organized info.; part learning for long, complicated info.; *Progressive Part Method ? break learning task into series of short sections ? study A, then A and B, then A,B, and C. Serial Position Effect ? lessen the effect by giving extra attention to middle parts or break longs lists into short sublists and make the middle sublists shortest. Cues ? best are those present during encoding; also elaborate Spaced Practice ? alternate short study sessions with brief rest periods; superior to massed practice ? little or no breaks between learning sessions. Sleep ? sleeping after learning, or studying reduces interference. Hunger ? hunger causes interference; eat good meal before tests. Extension of Memory Intervals ? repeatedly test yourself when learning new info.; gradually lengthen amount of time before testing self. Review ? hold amount of new info. you try to memorize to a minimum; too much may cause interference ? retroactive. Strategies to Aid Recall ? say or write things related to info. that can be remembered so they may serve as cues, try to recall info. or events in different orders, recall from different viewpoints, mentally put yourself back in the situation where the info. was learned ? recreate or relive mentally. OBJECTIVE 7.16 ? Define mnemonic; explain the four basic principles of using mnemonics; and describe three techniques for using mnemonics to remember things in order. Mnemonics ? any kind of memory system or aid; ways to avoid rote learning. *Use mental pictures ? turn info. from words to vivid mental images. *Make things meaningful ? give terms with little or no immediate personal meaning, then give them meaning by stretching the terms. *Make info. familiar ? connect info. to info. already stored in LTM; associate. *Form bizarre, unusual, or exaggerated mental associations to make things more distinctive and easier to retrieve; help improve immediate memory. Keyword Method ? using a familiar word or image to link 2 items. Form a story or chain ? form exaggerated mental images or associations Take a mental walk ? take mental walk along familiar path and associate topics with images found along path. Use a system -
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