learning produces memories and memories allow for learning.
Classical conditioning occurs by pairing a(n) _____ with a(n)_____ to produce a response.
unconditioned stimulus; conditioned stimulus
Rachel is training her dog, Duke, to bark when there is a knock on the door. She already knows that squeaking a mouse toy will make Duke bark. So, she decides to squeak the mouse and knock on the door at the same time to condition Duke to bark. What is the unconditioned stimulus in this case?
the squeaking mouse
The Rescorla-Wagner model showed that classical conditioning actually involved a cognitive aspect based on the organism’s _____.
The adaptive ability for organisms to transfer learning of one particular instance to another very similar case is evidence of:
Presenting _______ increase(s) the likelihood of a behavior happening; removing _______ decrease(s) the likelihood of the behavior.
positive reinforcement; negative reinforcement
On a daily basis, we experience more ____ reinforcers than ____ ones.
While playing football your friend scores a touchdown and gives a signal to the ferret. The ferret runs over to its cage and “kicks” a miniature football through a small goal post set up in the cage. Your friend probably used _____ to get the ferret to perform the trick.
Many professions include _____ as a training mechanism so that people can learn by watching the actions of others
Learned food aversions are generally acquired from ____ due to the evolutionary adaptive conditioning of rejecting foods that may be toxic.
What part of the brain is most associated with the positive aspects of reinforcement?
the limbic system
Individual differences are more commonly found in ____ tasks than for ____ ones.
Schedules of reinforcement are based on the finding that conditioned behaviors:
often continue or even become strengthened by irregular reinforcement.
When Jasminda first moved into her apartment the buzzing noise coming from her refrigerator drove her nuts. Now, after 3 months, Jasminda doesn’t notice the sound because she has likely:
habituated to the sound.
Georgia recently noticed that the cat comes running into the kitchen every time she uses her can-opener to open anything, not just tunafish. The cat’s behavior to the sound of the can-opener is a result of:
Izzie replaced Toby’s leash today with a new one and brings it over to her to get ready to go outside. Izzie is surprised because Toby doesn’t seem as excited as usual. This is most likely because Toby has:
discriminated between the two leashes, noticing that they are different.
Every time she changed Savannah’s diaper she would play the same song on a CD and give Savannah a small bite of cake while she changed her diaper. Now, as soon as Savannah hears the song, she is happy to have her diaper changed. What is the conditioned stimulus in this case?
You conditioned a rat to run up a set of miniature steps whenever you play a song by giving the rat treats at the same time as the song is playing. After acquisition, if you were to present the CS (the song) but no longer the US (the treats) what would eventually happen?
Extinction; the rat will stop responding to the song.
Classical conditioning can produce involuntary behaviors that are:
complex emotional responses in humans very simple physical responses with animals. very simple physical responses in humans.
The idea of ______ suggests that conditioning has an evolutionary perspective in that certain associations will be more easily learned if they help the organism’s survival.
_____ schedules of reinforcement typically produce the highest and most consistent rates of responding.
Tolman suggested that rats in a maze don’t simply produce behaviors without any using previous spatial information, but develop a _____ of the maze, which argues for a cognitive component to operant learning.
Each species is _____ to learn some things more readily than others.
Jake can make his sister, Joy, give him her toys or candy by whistling. Because she hates the sound so much, Joy will give Jake whatever he wants to make him stop. When Jake stops whistling this is a ___ for Joy.
Effects of observational learning can be seen in:
both animals and humans.
If you are learning something implicitly, without general awareness of the learning process, what area of the brain is NOT as active as that of someone learning explicitly?
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