Male and Female students offered 'similar' explanations for pursuing education including: 'Enjoyment, determination, skill, career plans, occupational prestige and financial rewards. It used to be thought women had lower achievement motivation than men.
M clearly outnumbered F in all academia prior to the 80s, in 1985 woman began to outnumber men at the undergraduate level, in a few years women also surpassed men in completing masters degrees, most recently the majority of doctoral degrees are now received by women. Some believe 'resources have been lavished on female students at the expense of males'. Upper middle and upper class do not experience this gender gap in all types of academic degrees
women have often reported a sense of being discouraged by professors and experienced lower expectations by those teachers, Asian females are an exception and experience a reverse stereotype.
Single Sex institutions
various scholars promote students seek all-M or all-F campuses to avoid "chilly Climate" problem
Women of color suffer a double 'stereotype threat' from sex and membership of specific ethnic groups.
Women are drawn to more communal careers like education, psychology, and health science, or will change majors from science or engineering to more gender stereotyped careers. Ethnic differences exist with African American expecting more success and Asians more likely to enter more agentic careers.
Career counseling issues
Career counselors have exhibited gender biases in the past (even currently) when aiding students in defining a career goal. It also appears that some vocational tests used in this area also can reflect gender bias.
Career v Family Expectations
Due to continued "motherhood mandate" feel like they need children, however they also want a career. So women tend to 'plan' their futures including how much time they will work after completing school, and how much time they want to spend caretaking small children before returning to work. Whites spend longer as a stay at home mom (4yrs), Blacks (2yrs) have long combined to 2 roles
women expect 'lower salaries' than men, this may be due to the tendency of females to choose 'less prestigious', more gender stereotyped professions which carry lower salaries.
Fear of Success
Women anticipated problems they might encounter in a 'man's world' so they were motivated to avoid these situations.
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