Ch. 9: Transformational Leadership Description Part of the ?New Leadership? paradigm (Bryman, 1992) ? gives more attention to the charismatic & affective elements of leadership Fits needs of today?s work groups, who want to be inspired & empowered to succeed in times of uncertainty Process that changes & transforms ppl Concern w/ emotions, values, ethics, standards, & LT goals & includes assessing followers? motives, satisfying needs & treating them as full human beings Involves exceptional form of influence that moves followers to accomplish more than what?s usually expected of them Process that often incorporates charismatic & visionary leadership Definition Downton (1973) Burns (1978) Transactional: bulk of leadership models, which focus on exchanges that occur b/t leaders & their followers Transformational: process whereby a person engages w/ others & creates a connection that raises the level of motivation & morality in both the leader & the follower; attentive to needs & motives of followers & tries to help followers reach their fullest potential Examples: Gandhi: raised hopes/demands of millions of ppl; changed himself Ryan White: raised awareness of AIDS & became spokesperson Manager who attempts to change his/her company?s corporate values to reflect a more humane standard of fairness & justice in process, stronger, higher set of moral values Pseudotransformational: considered personalized leadership, which focuses on the leader?s own interests rather than the interests of others (Bass & Steiddlmeier, 1999) Authentic = socialized leadership (concerned w/ collective good); leaders transcend their own interests for others? sake Transformational Leadership & Charisma House (1976): published theory of charismatic leadership Weber (1947): provided most well-known definition of charisma as a special personality characteristic that gives a person superhuman or exceptional powers & is reserved for a few, divine origin Charismatic leaders act in unique ways that have specific charismatic effects on followers Personal characteristics: dominant, strong desire to influence others, self-confident, strong sense of one?s own moral values Behaviors: strong role models, appear competent, articulate ideological goals that have moreal overtones, communicate high expectations for followers, exhibit confidence in followers? abilities to meet these expectations increase followers? sense of competence & self-efficacy, arouse task-relevant motives in followers that may include affiliation, power, or esteem Effects: follower trust in leader?s ideology, similarity b/t followers? beliefs & leader?s belief, unquestioning acceptance of the leader, expression of warmth toward leader, follower obedience, ID w/ leader, emotional involvement in leader?s goals, heightened goals for followers, follower confidence in goal achievement Revisions: Shamir, House, Arthur: transforms followers? self-concepts & tries to link the ID of followers to the collective identity of organization Link forged by emphasizing intrinsic rewards of work & de-emphasizing extrinsic rewards Personality Characteristics, Behaviors, & Effects on Followers of Charismatic Leadership Dominant sets strong role model trust in leader?s ideology Desire to influence shows competence belief similarity b/t leader & follower Confident articulates goals unquestioning acceptance Strong values communicates high expectations affection toward leader Strong values expresses confidence obedience Strong values arouses motives ID w/ leader, emotional involvement, heightened goals, increased confidence Model of Transformational Leadership Bass: give more attention to followers? rather than leaders? needs, more attention to emotional elements & origins of charisma, motivates followers to do more than the expected by a) raising followers? level sof consciousness about the importance & value of specified & idealized goals, b) getting followers to transcend their own self-interest for the sake of the team or org., c) moving followers to address higher-level needs Leadership Continuum from Transformational to Laissez-Faire Leadership Transformational Transactional Laissez-Faire Leadership Transformational Factors: Idealized influence / charisma: strong role models; followers ID w/ these leaders & want very much to emulate them; very high standards of moral & ethical conduct Inspirational motivation: communicate high expectations to followers, inspiring them through motivation to become committed to & a part of the shared vision in the org.; team spirit Intellectual stimulation: stimulates followers to be creative & innovative & to challenge their own beliefs & values as well as those of the leader & the org.; supports followers as they try new approaches & develop innovative ways of dealing w/ organizational issues; encourages followers to think things on own & engage in problem solving Individualized consideration: provide supportive climate; listen carefully to the individual needs of followers; act as coaches & advisors while trying to assist followers in becoming fully actualized; may use delegation Transactional Factors: Contingent reward constructive transactions: exchange process b/t leaders & followers in which effort by followers is exchanged for specified rewards; leader tries to get agreement from followers on what must be done & what the payoffs will be for the ppl doing it Mgt-by-exception active & passive corrective transactions: corrective criticism, negative feedback, negative reinforcement Active: leader watches followers closely for mistakes or rule violations & then takes corrective action Passive: intervenes only after standards haven?t been met or problems have arisen Laissez-Faire Factors: Laissez-Faire non-transactional: absence of leadership; abdicates responsibility, delays decisions, gives no feedback & makes little effort to help followers satisfy needs, no exchange Transformational Leadership Factors Concerned w/ improving performance of followers & developing followers to their fullest potential Strong set of internal values & ideals & effective in motivating followers to act in ways that support the greater good rather than their own self-interests Produces greater effects than transactional Results in performance that goes well beyond what?s expected Move followers to accomplish more than what?s usually expected of them Motivated to transcend own self-interests for good of group Effective Trans. 4 I?s Contingent Reward Passive M-b-E, Active Active M-b-E, Passive Laissez-Faire (non) Ineffective Additive Effect of Transformational Leadership Transformational: Idealized Influence + Inspirational Motivation + Intellectual Stimulation + Individualized Consideration Transactional: Contingent Reward + M-b-E Expected Outcomes Performance beyond Expectations Other Transformational Perspectives: Bennis & Nanus: What are your strengths & weaknesses? What past events most influenced your leadership approach? What were the critical points in your career? Clear vision of future state of their organizations (attractive, realistic, & believable future) Simple, understandable, beneficial, energy creating Easier for ppl in org. to learn how they fit in w/ overall direction of org. Must grow out of needs of whole org. Social architects for org. Create shape/form for shared meanings ppl maintain in org. Communicate a direction Mobilize ppl to accept a new group ID or a new philosophy for their org. Create trust in org. by making their own positions clearly known & standing by them Articulate direction & consistently implement direction Sense of integrity analogous to a healthy ID Creative deployment of self thru positive self-regard Emphasize strengths Immerse in tasks & overarching goals of org. Fuse a sense of self w/ work at hand Create confidence & high expectation feelings in followers Kouzes & Posner: Interviewed 1,300 middle- & sr-level in private/public = ?personal best? experiences as leaders Emphasizes behaviors & has prescriptive quality: recommends what ppl need to do in order to become effective leaders; model = practice, not personality LPI = Leadership Practices Inventory; 360 degree leadership assessment tool (30 ?s) 5 practices Model the way Clear about own values & philosophy Find their own voice & express Set personal example for others Follow thru on promises & commitments & affirm common values they share Inspire a shared vision Create compelling visions that guide behaviors Visualize positive outcomes in future & communicates Listens to dreams of others & show them how dreams can be realized Challenge others to transcend status quo to do something for others Challenge the process Willing to change status quo & step into unknown Willing to innovate, grow, & improve Like pioneers = want to experiment & try new things; take risks; learn from mistakes Enable others to act Effective at working w/ others Build trust & promote collaboration Teamwork & cooperation = highly valued Listen closely to diverse points of view & treat others w/ dignity & respect Allow others to make choices; support decisions that others make Create environments where ppl can feel good about their work & how it contributes to the greater community Encourage the heart Reward others for accomplishments Natural for ppl to want support & to be recognized Attentive to need & willing to give praise to workers for jobs well done Authentic celebrations & rituals to show appreciation & encouragement Greater collective ID & community spirit How does the transformational approach work? Set out to empower followers & nurture them in change Attempt to raise consciousness in individuals & to get them to transcend their own self-interests for the sake of others Strong role models for followers Highly developed set of moral values & self-determined sense of identity Confident, competent, articulate, express strong ideals Listen to followers Not intolerant of opposing viewpoints Spirit of cooperation Create a vision Emerges from collective interests of various individuals & units in org. Focal point for trans. Gives leader conceptual map for where the org. is headed Gives followers a sense of ID w/i the org. & also a sense of self-efficacy Social architects Make clear emerging values & norms of org. Involve themselves in culture & help shape meaning Ppl need to know their roles & understand how they contribute to greater purposes of org. Effective working w/ ppl Build trust & foster collaboration Encourage others & celebrate accomplishments Strengths Widely researched from different perspectives Intuitive appeal: makes sense to ppl & is appealing Treats leadership as a process that occurs b/t followers & leaders: needs of others Provides a broader view of leadership that augments other models: expanded pic of leadership Strong emphasis on followers? needs, values, & morals Effective form of leadership: evidence Criticisms Lacks conceptual clarity b/c covers wide range Parameters overlap w/ similar conceptualizations of leadership Revolves around how transformational leadership is measured Treats leadership as a personality trait or personal predisposition rather than a behavior in which ppl can be instructed Elitist & antidemocratic Suffers from ?heroic leadership? Potential to be abused Application Taught at all levels in org. & that it can positively affect a firm?s performance Can be used in recruitment, selection, & promotion, & training & development Often require taking MLQ = springboard to helping leaders improve a whole series of their leadership attributes Provides leaders w/ info about a full range of their behaviors Case Studies Vision Failed High Tech Engineering (HTE) Mr. Barelli ? created vision statement that was displayed thru company Changes were made from top down, w/ little input from lower or middle mgt vision lost Mr. Barelli stepped down as pres. Students Dig It Dr. Cook, prof Middle East Each year, groups are different Try to listen to students & use their strengths Accomplish Her Vision was a Model Research Center Ms. Adams ? researcher at large pharmaceutical co. Need for research center not connected w/ pharmaceuticals Pres. & CEO of Independent Center for Clinical Research (ICCR) Vision = make it a model research center that will blend credible science w/ efficient & cost-effective clinical trials Freethinker, open to ideas, positive, not afraid of risks, optimistic, role model Rapid growth travel, lose handle, estranged, frustrated, more planning Leadership Instrument MLQ (Bass, 1985) Predict how transformational leadership relates to outcomes such as effectiveness Summary Transformational: process of how leaders able to inspire followers to accomplish great things Leaders understand/adopt needs/motives of followers Change agents, good role models, articulate clear vision, empower others to higher standards, act in trustworthy way, give meaning to org. life Emerged from Burns (1978) & Bass (1985); also works from Bennis & Nanus (1985) Kouzes & Posner (1987) Assessed thru Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Idealized influence Inspirational motivation Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration Contingent reward Mgt-by-exception Laissez-faire Strong intuitive appeal, emphasizes importance of followers in process, goes beyond traditional, includes growth, emphasis of morals/values Lacks conceptual clarity, MLQ challenged, creates framework that implies trait; elitist; ?heroic leadership? bias; potential to be used counterproductively in negative ways
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