"Parent of the country"; the legal provision through which the state may assume ultimate parental responsibility for the custody, care and protection of children within its jurisdiction; the right of the government to take care of minors and others who cannot legally take care of themselves.
A system intended to provide a legal setting in which youths could account for their wrongs or receive official protection.
an offense by a juvenile that would not be a crime if committed by an adult, for example, truancy, running away, curfew violation or smoking cigarettes.
A youth who commits an act that would be a crime were it to be committed by an adult; the term is intended to avoid stigmatizing youth as criminals.
Perceived fairness of the distribution of outcomes
seeks revenge or recompense for unlawful behavior (lex talionis)
focuses on repairing the harm done to victims and to the community and stresses that offenders must contribute to the repair; also known as reparative justice.
UCR (Uniform Crime Reports)
the FBI's annual statistical summary titled Crime in the United States, intended to collect offense information for the Part I offenses of murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft and arson.
Dark figure of crime
the unknown true number of crimes, which may be substantially greater than official data indicate.
roughly equivalent to being judged in criminal court, it is a formal legal finding of responsibility, with a juvenile being cleared or declared a delinquent, status offender or dependent.
legislation to make status offenses noncriminal acts.
being tried for the same offense twice.
uses punishment or the threat of other sanctions, either formal or informal to prevent future law breaking by showing there are consequences to aberrant behavior.
carrying out the course of formal legal proceedings regularly and in accordance with established rules and principles, as provided for by the Fourteenth Amendment, with the result that no person is deprived of life, liberty or property unjustly.
model of individual diagnosis and individual treatment, an underlying philosophy of which was that delinquency was a preventable and treatable condition;
the confinement of an accused juvenile delinquent prior to trial if there is a substantial probability that they will not appear on court on the return date or if there is a serious risk that tey may pose a danger to themselves or to others.
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