Linguistics focuses on competence: the sum of ways in which people can use language
Psychology of language focuses on performance: how language us actually used in world
What does language do for us?
Allows us to convey relational meaning, relate info to out listener, and also a vehicle for thought, abstract, even nonsensical
How did Noam Chomsky contribute to the Cognitive Revolution by caring about linguistics?
His linguistics theory helped spur the cog rev. made important distinction that language acquisition is a natural not conditioned process.
How is language unique to humans meaning, how is it from other species?
Animals communicate but don't have language. Human language uses sets of arbitrary codes(letters, sounds etc.) and grammatical rules to generate virtually anything.
The study of speech It concerns the acoustic properties of speech sounds, how they are physically articulated and how they are percievedde
the smallest distinguishable units of speech (ex.) b in ba
the study of grammer of speech sounds, specifies what phonemes can be combined to make words, and in what order
(ex.) can say "glee" but not "dlee", english phonology doesn't allow for "d" and "l" to appear together at beginning of word
study of smallest units of meaning.
defn: morphenes // 3 types
the smallest linguistic units that convey meaning.
-content morphenes: content words with one syllable (ex.) chef
-function words: words that lend some meaning to syntactic structure (ex.) "the" indicated a noun is coming up, where as "these" indicate plural noun
-function morphenes: what we know as prefixes&suffixes that indicate past tense for example,
Oppose to english morphology being a simple case, what was mentioned as a complex case of morphology?
FINNISH. In finnish various morphenes can be combined in a variety of ways to create novel words.
-Sign language as well
Study of phrasal & sentential structure. Concerns ways in which words & phrases are strung together to create sentences
By linguistic definition, grammar
refers to the sum of ways in which people use languae to make meaningful senstences. Doesnt tell you what you are allowed to say but rather how people actually say things
The study of meaning. The meaning that emerges from words, phrases, sentences, and discourses(multiple sentences)
Why is meaning emergent?
It arises from various relationships between words
(ex.) the word "bank" has more than one meaning. Depends on the relationship of words with bank
Study of context of language. Pragmatics concerns how people use language for practical means and how language attempts to make effective use of it's context.
(ex.) telling someone,"john hit bill" implies they saw john and bill or they should infer something about them from knowledge of this situation
How does our brain actually deal with language?
Right handed, language is lateralized on left side and vice versa for left handed. However, too difficult to pinpoint the activations since, we're using long term memory to define words, visual cortex to percieve while reading, motor cortex because of speaking the words.
What part of the brain is referenced when talking about language?
Broca's area. The left frontal area of brain..
Why is it termed, Broca's area?
French Physician, Paul Broca had a patient troubling with speech disruption.
Language/speech disruption, greek meaning without speech, loss of ability to understan or produce language due to brain damage, Aphasic patients wont know the meaning of the sentence but can understand the words, parts of sentences(ex.) stroke
Defn: Broca's aphasia
Left hemispheric damage that disrupts the ability to form coherent syntactic represenations. Also called nonfluent aphasia because they have poor comprehension of syntax
defn: wernicke's aphasia
difficulty using words and morphemes. use of syntax is fine BUT speech is generally nonsensical. Also called fluent aphasia because they can speak fluently but don't make sense. (ex.) well this is..mother is away here working her work.
Called A triangle Lexicon. Model reflects researchers current beliefs that info about words is represented in a network that relates meaning, sound, and spelling.
The triangle model is saying how we have orthographic codes/phonological codes, and either one of those takes us to the same place where we represent meaning
What is phoenetic ambiguity?
When some speech sounds differ very little that can't distinguish between the two
what is lexical ambiguity?
Words can have multiple meanings, word boundaires arent always clear
What is the effect that takes place when something is poorly articulated, or someone coughs in the middle of a word?
Phoneme restoration effect. Its a top down process, getting top-down info about the context in whcih a phoneme was poorly pronounced.
defn: motor theory of speech perception
We percieve speech using the same mechanism that produce it. (an understanding of voal gestures rather than sound patterns) Althought his theory is NOT popular anymore
defn: Lexical ambiguity
When there's info bleeding into other info. Its hard to distinguish speech sounds between words blend together. and this can make identity of some words ambiguous. Coarticulation.
What can help disambiguate words?
Phonological stress. (Ex.) permit-license VS. permit-allowed to do.
words that math sounds heard at each point in time
What's being activating when we hear phonemes?
defn: Phonological neighbors
words that differ by one phoneme
(ex.) CANdy and CANdle
defn: Cohort Model
candidate words in the cohort are activated until a point of uniqueness reached
What does reading do for us?
Allows us to gather meaning from orthoographic represenations of words
What 2 very important things do the eyes do during reading?
fixate on words, to identify current words and some processing of next word (3-5 fixations/sec)
Make saccades between words, forward/backward, to move through the text(15% of saccades are regressive, to make sure we read right)
What influences our reading? What kinds of things do we do while reading, with that influence?
Top down processing knowledge. We skip words, especially function words (ex.) the. Our fixations are shorter on words expected (ex.) they are predictable. Fixation durations are also influences by the frequency of the word in the language(ex.) low frequency words like, palindrome are fixated.
A quick eye movement during reading
What's happening with eye fixations and making saccades during speed reading?
Saccades span much greater lengths acoss the text than in normal reading and there are very few fixations per sentence. Mostly resembles skimming
Defn: Garden Path Model
Model of Sentence comprehension states that we initially construct on representation and reanalyze structure if we run into difficulty. We are following down one path with only one meaning set in mind, and follow one interpretation and boggle at the disambiguating region.
Defn: Prosody// what does it do for us?
Refers to the rhythem and intonation of spoken language
-A rise in intonation as a sentence unfolds tells us that it's a question
-a prosodic pause can serve to help disambiguate a structurally ambiguous sentence
Is the triangle model of the lexicon correct?
Patients with temporal lobe(particularly left hemisphere) damage elicit category specific impairments in the representation of meaning, Some lose knowledge of specific categories like fruits and vegetables, while maintaining knowledge of other living things. This suggests a broader feature-based semantic network, as opposed to a mental dictionary of lexical specific entries. Mut be more complicated
defn: Figurative language
By definition ambiguous, in that it is the deliberate use of one word to mean another, by metphor or simile. (ex.) time flies
How do we study language production systematically?
Researcher Fromkin noted that when people make speech errors they are systematic and this heralded an era of production research by analyzing these errors
2 types of speech errors
-Word exchange: exchanges of whole words
-Sound exchange: exchanges of sounds of nearby words(spoonerims) (ex.) bine fody.
top to bottom:
-message level: prelinguistic comcepts about what is to be converyed (thinking, thoughts being formed)
-Grammatical encoding 2 levels: choosing which words to convey the intended mesage & organize those words into a syntactic structure
-Phonological encoding: organizing a phonological representation
-articulation: the act of articulating the message
defn: phonological encoding
Retrieving pronounciation representation necessary to articulate the message
Defn: Tip of Tongue State// What other language can this be found?
We know what we want to produce by can't spit it out.. Also found in sign language, where they can't finish the signm "tip of fingers" state
Brain damage which profoundly affects the ability to name objects, like a permanent T.O.T. state
defn: Code switching
Ability to switch between languages withint sentences
Are our thoughts limited by language?
Researchers have not yet found the answer yet, but true bilinguals have lots of practice with more than one language and exert a considerable degree of executive control to think or speak in one language of other
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