CHAPTER 4 The Impact of Educational Theories on Educational Practice Tiger trivia ?Cogito, ergo sum? (I think therefore I am) is the famous dictum of what great philosopher?? Rene Descartes (1596-1650) Overview of Chapter 4 Theories of Education Perennialism Progressivism Behaviorism Essentialism Social Reconstructionism Postmodernism Identifying Your Philosophy of Education CHAPTER 4 VOCAB Authentic assessment Back-to-basic movement Behavioral objective Classical conditioning Constructivism Critical literacy Critical theory Cultural literacy Great books Hegemony Hidden curriculum Operant conditioning Premack principle Theories of Education Definition of Theory: A composite of systematic thinking and generalization of schooling Helps teachers explain what they are doing and why they are doing it Most teachers include several theories into teaching Tiger teacher trivia Which of the following is a definition of THEORY? A hypothesis or set of hypotheses that have been verified by observation or experiment A general synonym for systematic thinking A set of coherent thoughts All of the above Perennialism Focused on eternal truths, order certainty, and logic Include traditional philosophies such as idealism, realism and neo-Thomism Purpose of Schooling To teach eternal truths/ cultivate rational intellect Learning is a lifelong process Perennialism, cont. Nature of the Learner All students are rational beings- valuable Curriculum Christian doctrine important for eccelesiastical perennialist Strong liberal arts curriculum Character training and moral development Instructional Methods Didactic instruction Coaching Socratic method Perennialism, cont. Classroom Management Discipline student to train the will Marked by orderliness and structure Assessment Objective examinations Essay tests to promote exchange of ideas Teacher Profile Well educated in liberal arts- authority figure Disseminator of truth- student=receptacle Leading Educational Proponents of Perennialism Jacques Maritain French Catholic philosopher Ideal education concentrates on Great Books of Western civilization Allan Bloom Concerned with intellectual crisis in 1980?s The Closing of the American Mind Progressivism Focus on real-world problem-solving activities Grounded in inductive reasoning Developed from philosophy of pragmatism Purpose of Schooling School should model life Includes moral, economic, educational, and political goals Encourages cooperation, not competition Progressivism, cont. Nature of the Learner Children ?learn by doing? Children are active beings interacting with environment and solving problems by working together Curriculum Experience centered, relevant, and reflective Based on interests, needs, and experiences of learners Instructional Methods Group work and projects Involve critical thinking, problem solving, decision making, and cooperative learning. Progressivism, cont. Classroom Management Holistic view inviting participation in process Democratic and involved Assessment More formative evaluations providing ongoing feedback Teacher Profile Facilitator Serves as a guide to student learning Leading Educational Proponents of Progressivism Francis Parker Considered father of progressive education John Dewey Credited with advancing progressivism Stressed importance of teacher-student interactions and social function of school as a model of democracy Laboratory school in Chicago Questions?? Ask Yourself page 54, ?What is My Philosophy of Life?? Behaviorism Human behavior explained through responses to external stimuli Manipulating environment to control behaviors Two types of behaviorism: Classical conditioning- Pavlov?s dog example Operant conditioning- any response to any stimulus can be conditioned using immediate reinforcement or reward Behaviorism, cont. Purpose of Schooling Increase appropriate behaviors, decrease inappropriate behaviors Schools modify and reinforce behavior Nature of the Learner Most behaviors are learned, and can be taught and modified Curriculum More interested in environmental variables than subject specific content Instructional Methods Providing reinforcement of appropriate behaviors Behaviorism, cont. Classroom Management Integral part of learning process Careful monitoring and observation Reward systems and consequences Assessment Behavioral objectives guide students in learning Performance contracts Teacher Profile Primary concern is classroom behavior Skilled at using a variety of schedules of reinforcement Leading Educational Proponents of Behaviorism Pavlov and Watson Classical conditioning explained all of learning Thorndike and Skinner Operant conditioning David Premack Premack principle: observe and record behavior of students Essentialism Protest against perceived decline of intellectual rigor and moral standards Often compare US to other countries Content schools are watered down Philosophies of idealism and realism embedded Purpose of Schooling Primary purpose is to train intellect and teach culture and traditions of past Essentialism, cont. Nature of the Learner Rigorous academic and moral training to become literate and discipline minds Curriculum Critical core or body of knowledge Set of essential skills and subjects No wasted time on subjects outside of core ones Instructional Methods Traditional strategies such as lecture, discussion, etc. Detailed instructional materials Essentialism, cont. Classroom Management Very controlled environment Regularity and uniformity is encouraged Assessment Influenced the testing movement Competency, accountability, mastery learning and performance-based instruction Teacher Profile Most likely majored in a subject-matter discipline Well versed in all areas, competent instructor, and technically skilled. Leading Educational Proponents of Essentialism Bagley and Bestor Led criticism of Dewey?s progressivism Formed the Essentialist Committee for Advancement of American Education Back to Basics Movement A Nation at Risk E.D. Hirsch Determined the 5,000 facts an educated person must know Social Reconstructionism Education must take the lead in reconstructing society Began in 1920?s and 1930?s- Frontier Thinkers Emphasized a new more equitable society Based on philosophies of pragmatism and existentialism Purpose of Schooling Critically examine all cultural and education institutions Not to settle for ?what is? but explore ?what might be? Social Reconstructionism, cont. Nature of the Learner Students are the critical element for change Curriculum Democratic ideas and civic education Critical theory and critical thinking skills Dealing in real world social problems Instructional Methods Cooperative learning, problem solving, and critical thinking Active learning outside the school in community Analyze, research and take action to change Classroom Management Question assumptions of status quo Organized in classless, nonsexist, nonracist Less emphasis on control- more on community building Assessment Authentic Assessment- cooperatively with student and teacher or student and student, ect. Oppose standardized testing Teacher Profile ?Change agent?, or ?transformational leader? Ongoing renewal of personal and professional life High tolerance for ambiguity and comfortable with change Social Reconstructionism, cont. Leading Educational Proponents of Social Reconstructionism Counts, Brameld, and Rugg During Great Depression- argued schools should take the lead in reconstructing society Illich and Freire Illich: Deschooling Society- called for the removal of schools Freire: Pedagogy of the Oppressed- students should be involved in their own learning and take control of their lives Postmodernism Also called postmodern constructivism Based on critical theory- critiques institutions and makes assumptions about the political nature of those institutions Believe no eternal universal truths and values Individuals construct their own meaning from personal experience Postmodernism, cont. Purpose of Schooling To prepare students for critical citizenship and inquiry Create awareness of inequity of society Nature of the Learner Learners have the right to voice questions about purpose of schools and society Curriculum Believe curriculum taught is biased Examines social justice and all unequal power relationships Instructional Methods Construct meaning by hands-on, problem solving activities Postmodernism, cont. Classroom Management Nonthreatening, supportive and open to discussion of controversial subjects Treat each other with dignity and respect Assessment Authentic Assessments such as journals, portfolios, photographs, video, art projects, ect. Students encouraged to evaluate their own progress Teacher Profile ?Critical thinker? Recognize the power of influence they have and constantly respect the rights of individuals TIGER TEACHER TRIVIA What educational theory would the instructor of your class, Dr. B., most likely be associated with? BEHAVIORIALISM Leading Educational Proponents of Postmodernism Frankfurt School of philosophy and social theory Started in 1930?s- Germany Melded philosophy and psychoanalysis Leading proponents were Karl Marx Leading proponents today include: Michael Apple, Stanley Aronowitz, Jacques Derrida, Henry Giroux, Joe Kincheloe, & Peter McLaren Identifying Your Philosophy of Education Few teachers operate from a single philosophical or theoretical perspective This is an important and common task to perform as a teacher Your ideas about education may change over time Review Questions for Chapter 4 What is a theory? Why is it important for teachers to understand theory? Compare the purpose of schooling from a perennialist, progressivist, behaviorist, essentialist, social reconstructionist, and postmodern perspective. Describe the nature of the learner from a perennialist, progressivist, behaviorist, essentialist, social reconstructionist, and postmodern perspective. Compare the curricula of perennialist, progressivist, behaviorist, essentialist, social reconstructionist, and postmodern perspective. Review of Chapter 4, cont. Compare the instructional methods of perennialist, progressivist, behaviorist, essentialist, social reconstructionist, and postmodern perspective. Compare the preferred management methods of perennialist, progressivist, behaviorist, essentialist, social reconstructionist, and postmodern perspective. Compare the assessment strategies of perennialist, progressivist, behaviorist, essentialist, social reconstructionist, and postmodern perspective. Describe the role of the teacher from a perennialist, progressivist, behaviorist, essentialist, social reconstructionist, and postmodern perspective. Questions??? Ask yourself page 100, ?Does corporal punishment have a place in the schools?? Quiz on chapters 3 & 4, bring scantron.
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