holding a political office for which one is runnying
an effort by members of congress to gain the trust and support of constituents by providing personal service; one impt type of casework consists of helping constituents obtain favorable treatment from the federal bureaucracy.
the resources available to higher officials, usually opportunities to make partisan appointments to offices and confer grants, licenses, or special favors to supporter.
pork barrel legislation
the appropriations made by legislative bodies for local projects that often are not needed but are created so that local representatives can carry their home district in the next election.
the apportionment of voters in districts in such a way as to give unfair advantage to one political party.
party caucus, or party conference
a normally closed meeting of a political or legislative group to select candidates or leaders, plan strategy, or make decisions regarding legislative matters
speaker of the house
the chief presiding officers of the house of representatives. the sepaker is elected at the beginning of every congress on a straight party vote. he or she is the most impt party and house leader.
the elected leader of the party holding a majority of the seats in the House of Representatives or the Senate. In the House, the majority leader is subordinate in the party hierarchy to the Speaker
the elected leader of the party holding less than majority of the seats in House or Senate.
a permanent legislative committee that considers legislation within its designated subject area; the basic unit of deliberation in the House
the right and power to decide if a change in policy will be considered.
the capacity to bring a proposal before the full legislature
after the fact authority
the authority to follow up on the fate of a proposal once it has been approved by the full chamber
a joint committee created to work out a compromise for House and Senate versions of a piece of legislation
the effort by Congress, through hearings, investigations, and other techniques, to exercise control over the activities of executive agencies.
the priority or status ranking given to an individual on the basis of length of continuous service on a congressional committee.
the difference between what a principal would like an agent to do and the agent's performance.
the agencies responsible for providing congress with independent expertise, administration and over sight capability
an association of members of congress based on party, interest, or social characteristic such as gender or race
the provision b the House Rules committee that prohibits the introduction of amendments during debate
the provision by the House rule committee that permit floor debate and the addition of amendment to the bill.
a tactic used by members of the senate to prevent action on legislation they oppose by continuously holding the floor and speaking until the majority back down. once given the floor, senators have unlimited time to speak, and it requires a cloture vote of three fifths of the senate to end a filibuster.
a rule allowing a super majority of the members of a legislative body to set a time limit on debate over the given bill
the president's constitutional power to turn down acts of congress within ten days of their passage while congress is in session. a presidential veto may be override by 2/3 vote of each house of congress.
a veto that is effected when congress adjourns during the time a president has to approve a bill and the president takes no action on it.
the tendency of congress to spread the benefits of a policy over a wide range of member's district
a communications network in each house of congress. whips poll the membership to learn their intentions on specific legislative issues and assist the majority and minority leader in various tasks
a legislative practice where in reciprocal agreements are made btw. legislators, usually in voting for or against a bill. in contrast to bargaining, logrolling unites parties that have nothing in common but their desire to exchange support.
an agreement between the president and another country that has the force of a treaty but does not require the senate's advice and consent
the charging of a government official with treason, bribery, or other high crimes an misdemeanor and bringing him or her before congress to determine guilt
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