What are other ways a person could improve their mood:
listen to music, pray/meditate, help others in need, take a shower, play with pet, exercise/work out, go out with friends, eat, take a drive, have sex
How much of population receive treatment for unipolar depression:
approximately one-third of people
How well do colleges treat depression?
the ratio of counselor to student is 1 to 800-200 depending on school size
parents are urged to ask colleges how well they provide counseling
some schools offer up to 10 sessions or unlimited, screening before being accepted
Which therapy has great research and practice?
cognitive and cognitive behavioral therapy
Describe psycho-dynamic therapy for unipolar depression:
therapy help clients bring underlying issues to their consciousness and work them through
encourage clients to associate freely
suggest interpretations of their dreams, associations, and displays of resistance and transference
help the person review past events
Describe behavioral therapy:
reintroduce clients to pleasurable events and activities such as going shopping, taking photos(behavioral activation)
reinforce depressive and non-depressive behaviors(contingency management)
help them improve their social skills
The act of adding positive activities to a person's life to improve their mood is
A therapist may use this approach to reinforce clients behavior by ignoring their depressive behavior while praising or rewarding constructive statements and behavior, such as going to work:
Describe the 4 phases of cognitive therapy for unipolar depression that require less than 20 sessions:
increasing activities and elevating mood(create schedule)
challenging automatic thoughts
identify negative thinking and bias
changing primary attitudes
How might psychodynamic therapy not work?
clients may be too passive or weary to fully participate in discussions
clients may become discouraged and end treatment too early when treatment is unable to provide quick relief
How might behavioral therapy for unipolar depression not work?
only limited when only one is applied
unrelentingly negative thoughts that flood the mind and produce symptoms of depression
Whats the most effective treatment for bipolar 1 and 2 patients?
anti bipolar (mood stabilizing) drugs
All treatment, except cyclothymic disorder, for mood disorders has what percentage of improvement?
What practice guides depressed clients to recognize and accept their negative cognition simply as streams of thinking that flow through their minds, rather than as valuable guides for behavior and decision.
ACT- acceptance and commitment therapy
How might a therapist prepare for culture sensitive therapy?
special cultural training
heightened awareness by therapist of their clients cultural values, stressors, prejudices, and stereotypes
recognization of their own culture
Describe interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed clients:
based on belief that clarifying and changing one's interpersonal problems within 16 sessions:
The brain supplies of t he enzyme MAO break down norepinephrine. MAO inhibitors block MAO from destruction of the neurotransmitter. The result is a rise in norepinephrine and less depressive symptoms.
What are the bad effects of MAO inhibitors?
high blood pressure and if eaten with certain foods, it could be dangerous interaction
To prevent relaspe, patients take drugs for 5 months or more after being fee of depressive symptoms, is called
to prevent relapse, patents take drugs for 3 years or more after initial improvement, is called
How do tricyclic drugs decrease depression?
i blocks the reuptake process by enabling norepinephrine or serotonin to remain in the synapse longer and bind to the receiving neuron.
How was MAO discovered?
First used to treat TB but doctors noticed it made patients happier.
How was tricyclic drugs discovered?
First used to treat schizophrenia and notice that imipramine lessened depressive symptoms
Which enzyme, used in cheese, bananas, wine, is deadly if used with MAO's
How might SSRI differ from MAO inhibitors and and tricyclics?
it specifically affect serotonin and no other NT
NAme the popular selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors
Name the popular serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors:
Who has first dibs on antidepessants drugs?
white Americans are prescribed more and newer drugs than others
elderly depressors are more likely than other depressors to receive medication
which nerve serves as a primary channel of communication between the brain and major organs by running from the brain stem through the neck down the chest and abdomen:
Describe vagus nerve stimulation:
surgeon implants a pulse generator under the skin of the chest and wires it to the left vagus nerve
the pulse generator runs on battery and is programmed to stimulate the vague nerve every 5 mins for a period of 30 secs
stimulated nerve sends electrical signal to brain
Describe transcranial magnetic stimulation:
a treatment procedures for depression in which an electomagnetic coil, which is placed on or above a person's head, sends a current into the individual's brain(prefrontal cortex) to increase neuron activity in that area.
What is downside to TMS:
not yet approved by FDA as treatment for depression
must be given daily for 2-4 wks
cause discomfort to the patients scalp and can produce seizures
Describe deep brain stimulation:
drill 2 tiny holes into skull and implant electrodes in Area 25.
electrodes connected to pacemaker implanted in chest or stomache
Lithium is prescribed to which mood disorder:
a metallic element that occurs in nature as mineral salt is called:
chemical changes within a neuron just after the neuron receives a NT message and just before it responds is
How might mood stabilizers differ from antidepressant drugs?
one affects second messengers while the other affect a neuron's initial reception of NT's.
which therapy is not beneficial for bipolar patients?
psychotherapy plays a more central role in the treatment of what disorder
adjuntive psychotherapy :
uses individual, group, or family therapy as an adjunct to mood stabilizing drugs
how might adjuntive psychotherapy become useful:
to emphasis the importance of continuing medications
improve social skills and relationships
educate patients and families about bipolar disorder
help solve problems created by disorder
and help prevent patients from suicide
Serotonin is linked to what disorder:
depression, OCD, and eating disorders
norepinephrine is linked to what disorders:
depression and panic disorder
Who developed learned helplessness theory of depression?
suffer from double depression have which of the following patterns of
They suffer from
dysthymic disorder, and this leads to a diagnosis of major depressive
population has a much higher risk of developing depression than the
general United States population?
anorexia nervosa may benefit from supplements of which mineral?
effective treatment for bipolar disorder.
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