Chapter 3 study questions Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. Which of the following is not a property of carbon? a. Carbon-to-carbon bonds are limited to single bonds. b. Carbon has four valence electrons. c. Carbon can form bonds to various other atoms. d. Two carbon atoms can share three electron pairs with each other. e. Carbon-to-carbon bonds are strong. ____ 2. The number of electron pairs shared between carbon 2 and 3 in the accompanying figure is: a. one. b. one and a half. c. two. d. three. e. four ____ 3. The two molecules in the following figure represent: a. ionized structures. b. enantiomers. c. secondary structures. d. geometric isomers. e. polymers. ____ 4. The highly polarized nature of compounds containing carboxyl groups can be attributed to the presence of two: a. highly electronegative carbon atoms. b. highly electropositive carbon atoms. c. highly electronegative oxygen atoms. d. highly electropositive oxygen atoms. e. highly electropositive nitrogen atoms. ____ 5. This functional group is weakly basic because it can accept an H+ ion: a. hydroxyl b. carbonyl c. amino d. phosphate e. sulfhydryl ____ 6. Hydrocarbons are hydrophobic because: a. the covalent bonds between hydrogen and carbon are nonpolar. b. they contain oxygen atoms. c. they exist as isomers. d. the covalent bonds between carbon atoms are polar. e. the hydrogen bonds between hydrogen and carbon are nonpolar. ____ 7. The chemical interactions of large organic molecules are largely determined by: a. their solubility in water. b. their functional groups. c. their polar nature. d. isomerization of these hydrocarbons into other forms. e. the hydrogens bonded to the carbon atoms. ____ 8. Which of these terms is most inclusive? a. monosaccharide b. starch c. polysaccharide d. disaccharide e. carbohydrate ____ 9. Carbohydrate molecules: a. serve as structural components of human cell walls. b. form the regulatory compounds known as enzymes. c. are a source of energy. d. help protect vital organs from damage. e. contain the genetic information of a cell. ____ 10. A chemical reaction in which polymers are synthesized from their building blocks is called: a. hydrolysis. b. condensation. c. oxidation. d. reduction. e. dissociation. Figure 3-1 Use the figure below to answer the corresponding question(s). ____ 11. The process illustrated in Figure 3-1 is called: a. condensation. b. protein synthesis. c. hydrolysis. d. dehydration synthesis. e. denaturation. ____ 12. The products of the process in Figure 3-1 are: a. amino acids. b. molecules of glycerol. c. representative of a glycoside linkage. d. enzymes. e. monosaccharides. ____ 13. Which of the following illustrates hydrolysis? a. the reaction of two monosaccharides to form a disaccharide b. the reaction of two amino acids to form a dipeptide c. the reaction of a hydrogen atom and a hydroxide ion to form water d. the reaction of a fat to form glycerol and fatty acids e. the formation of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate ____ 14. The difference between a hexose and a pentose is that: a. a hexose is saturated, and a pentose is undersaturated. b. a hexose is hydrophilic, and a pentose is hydrophobic. c. a hexose always has six hydroxyl groups, and a pentose always has five. d. a hexose always has six carbons, but a pentose always has five carbons. e. a hexose can be polymerized, but a pentose cannot. ____ 15. Monosaccharides are water soluble because: a. they contain a large number of methyl groups. b. they have a large number of polar hydroxyl groups. c. they have at least one double bond between adjacent carbons. d. they have large numbers of nonpolar carbons in their backbones. e. they can form ring structures. ____ 16. Which one of the following carbohydrates is the most structurally complex? a. sucrose b. fructose c. cellulose d. glucose e. a disaccharide ____ 17. A carbohydrate energy storage molecule found in animal liver and muscle cells is: a. starch. b. glycogen. c. cellulose. d. a fatty acid. e. cholesterol. ____ 18. Which of the following is NOT true of lipids? a. They store energy. b. They function as structural components of cellular membranes. c. They function as hormones. d. They are nonpolar. e. They have many oxygen-containing functional groups. ____ 19. The hydrolysis of triacylglycerol will yield: a. three fatty acids and one glycerol. b. three glycerols and one fatty acid. c. two fatty acids and three glycerols. d. one fatty acid, one amino acid, and one glucose. e. one fatty acid, one phosphate, and one glycerol. ____ 20. A molecule of a saturated triacylglycerol contains: a. the maximum number of double bonds between carbons in the fatty acid chains. b. the maximum number of triple bonds between carbons in the fatty acid chains. c. the maximum number of hydrogen atoms in the fatty acid chains. d. fatty acid chains with both amino and carboxyl groups. e. alternating single and double bonds between carbons in the fatty acid chains. ____ 21. Which of the following statements concerning unsaturated fats is correct? a. They are more common in animals. b. They have no double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty acids. c. They are generally liquid at room temperature. d. They contain more hydrogen than do saturated fats having the same number of carbon atoms. e. They have fewer fatty acids per fat molecule than do saturated fats. ____ 22. An amphipathic molecule has: a. two polar ends. b. two hydrophobic ends. c. a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic portion. d. only one hydrophobic end. e. only one hydrophilic end. ____ 23. The major difference between a structural lipid, such as those in cell membranes, and a storage fat is the fact that the structural lipid: a. most commonly contains phosphate. b. does not contain glycerol. c. has four fatty acids attached to glucose. d. is entirely hydrophobic. e. is nonpolar. ____ 24. The most abundant molecules in this structure are: a. structural proteins. b. polysaccharides. c. triacylglycerols. d. phospholipids. e. polypeptides. ____ 25. The primary difference between the amino acids commonly found in proteins is in their: a. R or variable groups. b. number of potassium groups. c. number of phosphate groups. d. number of carbonyl groups. e. number of asymmetric carbons. ____ 26. Regulatory proteins: a. defend against foreign invaders. b. store nutrients. c. catalyze a specific chemical reaction. d. control the expression of specific genes. e. strengthen and protect cells and tissues. ____ 27. At which level of protein structure are peptide bonds most important? a. primary b. secondary c. tertiary d. quaternary e. globular ____ 28. Which of the following is responsible for the alpha-helical structure of proteins? a. hydrophobic interactions b. nonpolar covalent bonds c. ionic interactions d. hydrogen bonds e. polar covalent bonds ____ 29. Proteins with alpha-helical forms exhibit this property: a. strength. b. elasticity. c. heat stability. d. rigidity. e. hydrophobicity. ____ 30. The tertiary structure of proteins is typified by the: a. association of several polypeptide chains by weak bonds. b. order in which amino acids are joined in a peptide chain. c. bonding of two amino acids to form a dipeptide. d. folding of a peptide chain to form an alpha helix. e. three-dimensional shape of an individual polypeptide chain. ____ 31. All of the following types of chemical bonds are responsible for maintaining the tertiary structure of this polypeptide except: a. ionic bonds. b. hydrogen bonds. c. hydrophobic interactions. d. disulfide bonds. e. peptide bonds. ____ 32. Molecular chaperones are proteins that mediate the folding process of: a. other proteins. b. amino acids. c. lipids. d. DNA. e. sugars. ____ 33. If the differently shaded portions of this molecule represent different polypeptide chains, then this figure is representative of: a. an amino acid. b. the quaternary structure of a protein. c. a steroid hormone. d. cellulose. e. a carotenoid. ____ 34. Which of the following statements is true of proteins? a. Proteins lose some or all of their normal activity if their three-dimensional structure is disrupted. b. Proteins are composed of ribose, phosphate, and a nitrogen-containing base. c. The activity of proteins is independent of temperature and pH. d. Denaturation is usually reversible. e. All proteins are enzymes. ____ 35. This molecule transmits heredity information: a. cholesterol. b. adenosine triphosphate. c. nucleic acid. d. fatty acid. e. polysaccharide. ____ 36. Which of the following statements is false? a. DNA is usually composed of two nucleotide strands. b. DNA contains deoxyribose. c. DNA does not normally contain uracil. d. The nucleotides of DNA are linked by phosphodiester linkages. e. DNA does not normally contain a phosphate group. ____ 37. DNA most directly determines which __________ are made by a cell. a. polysaccharides b. polypeptides c. nucleotides d. triglycerides e. fatty acids ____ 38. Which of the following statements best summarizes the differences between RNA and DNA? a. RNA is a protein and DNA is a nucleic acid. b. DNA is a polymer and RNA is a monomer. c. DNA comprises the genes, while RNA is a direct participant in the process of protein synthesis. d. RNA is a single-stranded form of DNA. e. DNA is the primary energy currency of all cells. Figure 3-3 Use the figure to answer the corresponding question(s). ____ 39. The molecular fragment represented in Figure 3-3 is: a. ATP. b. RNA. c. a protein. d. a nucleotide. e. a polysaccharide. ____ 40. The type of connection between the atoms at the point labeled 1 in Figure 3-3 is: a. a peptide bond. b. a glycoside linkage. c. a disulfide bond. d. a phosphodiester linkage. e. a hydrogen bond. ____ 41. Analysis of a certain polymer shows that it contains phosphate groups, ribose groups, and pyrimidines. Based on this information, which of the following is the best description of this compound? a. It is most likely ribonucleic acid. b. It is DNA. c. It is an inorganic compound. d. It contains thymine. e. It is a polypeptide. ____ 42. When a nucleic acid undergoes hydrolysis, the resulting subunits are: a. amino acids. b. monosaccharides. c. nucleotides. d. fatty acids. e. carotenoids. ____ 43. ATP is important in living organisms because: a. like all other nucleic acids, it stores hereditary information. b. like RNA, it acts as a source code for the formation of proteins. c. it can transfer some of its energy to other chemicals. d. it is an important structural component of cell membranes. e. it is easily converted to starch for long-term storage. ____ 44. Which portion of the following molecule is most directly involved in transferring energy? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 1 and 2 e. 2 and 3 ____ 45. Glucose dissolves in water because: a. it ionizes. b. it is a polysaccharide. c. it has polar hydroxyl groups that interact with polar water molecules. d. it has a very reactive primary structure. e. it is hydrophobic. ____ 46. What macromolecule is composed entirely of beta-glucose units? a. starch b. chitin c. glycogen d. cellulose e. protein ____ 47. If you partially hydrogenate oleic acid, the resulting molecule most likely would: a. decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease. b. contain more double bonds. c. lose a carbon atom. d. lose a carboxyl group. e. have a double bond changed from cis to trans. ____ 48. You isolate a compound that is insoluble in water, has alternating single and double bonds, and has a bright orange color. You correctly conclude that this compound is a: a. protein. b. nucleic acid. c. polysaccharide. d. steroid. e. carotenoid. ____ 49. The following amino acid would be characterized as __________ based on the chemical properties of its side chain. a. nonpolar b. acidic c. basic d. hydrophilic e. electrically charged ____ 50. If tyrosine and isoleucine undergo condensation, the new bond that is formed is between the: a. oxygen of the R group and the hydrogen of the amino group. b. carbon of the R group and the nitrogen of the amino group. c. carbon of the carboxyl group and the hydrogen of the R group. d. carbon of the carboxyl group and the hydrogen of the amino group. e. carbon of the carboxyl group and the nitrogen of the amino group. Figure 3-2 Use the figure below to answer the corresponding question(s). ____ 51. Hydrophobic interactions would occur between the R groups of which two amino acids in Figure 3-2? a. 1 and 4 b. 2 and 5 c. 3 and 6 d. 2 and 4 e. 3 and 5 ____ 52. This functional group forms bridges that help stabilize protein quaternary structure: a. hydroxyl b. carbonyl c. amino d. phosphate e. sulfhydryl ____ 53. Which pair matches the correct macromolecule with the bond that joins its subunits? a. polysaccharide?peptide bond b. triacylglycerol?glycosidic linkage c. nucleic acid?phosphodiester linkage d. protein?ester linkage e. steroid?peptide bond Matching Match the molecule with the appropriate word or phrase. a. carbohydrate c. nucleic acid b. lipid d. protein ____ 54. most are nonpolar ____ 55. starch ____ 56. consist of monomers having 20 different types ____ 57. a beta-pleated sheet is one typical structure ____ 58. monomers are joined by a glycosidic linkage ____ 59. contains purines and pyrimidines ____ 60. cellulose ____ 61. cholesterol ____ 62. may contain thymine ____ 63. monomers are joined by phosphodiester linkages ____ 64. can be denatured by temperature and/or pH ____ 65. some are composed of fatty acids joined to glycerol Chapter 3 study questions MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. REF: p. 47 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge 2. REF: p. 48 OBJ: Bloom's: Comprehension 3. REF: p. 48-49 OBJ: Bloom's: Comprehension 4. REF: p. 49 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge 5. REF: p. 50 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge 6. REF: p. 48 OBJ: Bloom's: Comprehension 7. REF: p. 49 OBJ: Bloom's: Comprehension 8. REF: p. 51-52 OBJ: Bloom's: Comprehension 9. REF: p. 51 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge 10. REF: p. 51 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge 11. REF: p. 51 OBJ: Bloom's: Application 12. REF: p. 51 OBJ: Bloom's: Application 13. REF: p. 51 | p. 57 OBJ: Bloom's: Comprehension 14. REF: p. 52 OBJ: Bloom's: Comprehension 15. REF: p. 52 OBJ: Bloom's: Comprehension 16. REF: p. 54 OBJ: Bloom's: Comprehension 17. REF: p. 54 OBJ: Bloom's: Comprehension 18. REF: p. 56 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge 19. REF: p. 57 OBJ: Bloom's: Comprehension 20. REF: p. 57 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge 21. REF: p. 57 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge 22. REF: p. 58 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge 23. REF: p. 56 | p. 59 OBJ: Bloom's: Comprehension 24. REF: p. 58 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge 25. REF: p. 61 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge 26. REF: p. 60 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge 27. REF: p. 61 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge 28. REF: p. 64 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge 29. REF: p. 64 OBJ: Bloom's: Comprehension 30. REF: p. 64-65 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge 31. REF: p. 65 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge 32. REF: p. 66 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge 33. REF: p. 65 | p. 67 OBJ: Bloom's: Comprehension 34. REF: p. 67 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge 35. REF: p. 68 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge 36. REF: p. 68 OBJ: Bloom's: Comprehension 37. REF: p. 68 OBJ: Bloom's: Comprehension 38. REF: p. 68 OBJ: Bloom's: Comprehension 39. REF: p. 68-69 OBJ: Bloom's: Application 40. REF: p. 68 OBJ: Bloom's: Comprehension 41. REF: p. 68 OBJ: Bloom's: Application 42. REF: p. 68 OBJ: Bloom's: Comprehension 43. REF: p. 68 OBJ: Bloom's: Comprehension 44. REF: p. 68 OBJ: Bloom's: Comprehension 45. REF: p. 52 OBJ: Bloom's: Application 46. REF: p. 54 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge 47. REF: p. 58 OBJ: Bloom's: Application 48. REF: p. 59 OBJ: Bloom's: Analysis 49. REF: p. 63 OBJ: Bloom's: Application 50. REF: p. 61 | p. 64 OBJ: Bloom's: Application 51. REF: p. 65 OBJ: Bloom's: Application 52. REF: p. 66 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge 53. REF: p. 68 OBJ: Bloom's: Comprehension MATCHING 54. REF: p. 56 OBJ: Bloom's: Comprehension NOT: New 55. REF: p. 51 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge NOT: New 56. REF: p. 61 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge NOT: New 57. REF: p. 64 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge NOT: New 58. REF: p. 53 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge NOT: New 59. REF: p. 68 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge NOT: New 60. REF: p. 54 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge NOT: New 61. REF: p. 59 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge NOT: New 62. REF: p. 68 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge NOT: New 63. REF: p. 68 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge NOT: New 64. REF: p. 67 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge NOT: New 65. REF: p. 57 OBJ: Bloom's: Knowledge NOT: New
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