energy of electrons in further vs. closer orbitals
the further from the nucleus the higher the energy, closer to the nucleus the energy goes down--electrons closer to the nucleus have less energy because thats where they want to be since electrons are negative and overall charge of nucleus is positive due to protons.
designates a specific isotope
protons + neutrons
235 U-- the upper number
defines what element we are talking about
tells the number of protons
92U-the lower number
what happens if you change the number of electrons in an atom
gives the atom a charge and makes it an ion
what happens if you change the neutrons in an atom
makes it a different isotope of that same atom and gives it a different mass number
what happens if you change the protons of an atom
makes it a different element
basics of periodic table
columb=group-up and down
row=period -left ot right
noble gas=inert-no chemical reactions involved
alkali metal (group 1)-basic, highly reactive in water and as you go down they become more reactive
alkaline earth metal (group 2)-create basic solutions but less reactive than group 1
transition metals-take on various charges
halogens-group 7-have 7 valence electrons want to pick up one more.
how many orbitals are there per shell?
how many electrons are held in each shell?
when orbitals are equal in energy
ex: p orbital has 3 degenerate orbitals
how can you get a more stable shell?
half filled subshells and completely filled subshells are more stable than 1 away from being full.
electron configuration of Cu
Cu would think to be [Ar]4s23d9
but its actualy [ar] 4s13d10
ag and au and rg also follow this exception.
electron configuration for Cr and Mo
Cr: [Ar] 4s13d5
Mo: [Kr] 5s14d5
this is NOT an exception for W and Sg
electron configuration for Cu2+
move from highest shell number first, so 4 before 3.
Cu2+: [Ar] 4s03d9
another example: Ni2+
valence electrons of transition metals
if d is full, it doesnt count and look at the other subshells, but if the d isnt full, then it counts.
an element can be deflected by a magnetic field
there is an unpaired electron
always paramagnetic if there is an odd number
the more unpaired electrons you have, the more paramagnetic you are
wont get deflected by a magnetic field
all electrons are paired up
heisenberg uncertainty principle
its impossible to determine, with perfect accuracy, the momentum and the position of an electron simultatneously, this means
pauly exclusion principle
no two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers
an electrons address
principle quantum number-what shell is the electron living in, shell #
tells what subshell
0=s; 1=p; 2=d; 3=f
magnetic quantum number
specifies the specific orbital/orientation in space
-l through +l
spin quantum number +/- 1/2
an atoms absorption spectrum
each atom has a specific absortion spectrum, measures the amount of energy, in the form of photons of light, and thus a change in wavelength was absorbed by the sample
every atom has its own wavelength at which it will absorb energy due to the unique configuration of the electrons in the outer shell.
endothermic when it absorbs energy and electron goes to a higher orbitial
exothermic when the electron releases energy, or emits a photon
h=planks constant, 6.626x10-34
einsteins equation-nuclear energy
E=energy; Δm=mass; c=speed of light=3x108
in the nuclear reaction, mass is converted into energy-al nuclear reactions convert mass into energy. little mass turns into ALOT of energy.
in nuclear reactions, products will therefore way less than reactants cuz mass has been converted into energy, and they are therefore exothermic.
protons hate eachother and dont want to be close, so they repel.
they stay in the nucleus becuase there is an attractive force in nucleus called the strong force which overcomes the electrostatic replsion between protons
strong force comes from the nuclear binding energy
nuclear binding energy
protons and neutrons seperately weigh more than when they are put together in the nucleus--they sacrafice some mass and convert to energy so they can hold protons and neutrons in the nucleus. the mass thats converted into energy is the neclear binding energy.
stable nucleus-hgih nuclear binding energy
unstable/radioactive=lower nuclear binding energy
24α-2 protons and mass number of 4-2 neutrons
equivalent of helium nucleus, but not same as helium atom because it doesn't have electrons.
11p -has one proton and mass number of one
no charge, but a mass number of 1, less than a proton
an electron, has -1 charge, and mass number is 0, but it really does have a tiny mass its just rounded
positively charged electron and can be emitted out of a nucleus.
its a photon of light, and it actually does have a 0 mass.
as mass decreases, penetrating power increases--gamma is most penetrating and will do the most harm, alpha will do the least harm
1. even number of protons and or neutrons-if odd number of protons and nuetrons, you are probably radioactive-better if neutrons and protons are paired up.nitrogen-14 is exception
2. n/z ratio-want it as close to 1 for lighter elements, after you pass 20, want more neutrons, so higher than 1.-want atom to lie close to belt of stability
3. magic numbers-2, 10, 18 electrons-noble gases with filled shells
can invert one element into another element
42 α as product-put on right hand side of equation
whenever you emit something its a product of that reaction
reduces mass number
every element greater than 83, palonium and higher are radioactive. z>83
always talking about electron emission, shows up on product side
proton+electron=neutral, mass number=1
when you combine proton and electron, you get a neutron
turns a neutron into a proton by taking out an electron
if you are above belt of stability, n/z ratio is high so you want more protons, so you go thorugh beta decay
when inner core electron is sucked into the nucleus
electron is on reactant side of arrow 0-1e
turns a proton into a neutron
have proton in nucleus and sucks in a electron, it makes a neutron by capturing the electron-capture negative electron
if below belt, n/z is too low so there are too many proton and not enough neutrons, so want to turn protons into neutrons by electron capture
turns proton into a nuetron
gives off a positive electron to make a neutron.
if below belt, n/z is too low so there are too many proton and not enough neutrons, so want to turn protons into neutrons by positron emission
usually accompanies another nuclear process
have nuclear reaction and product nucleus isnt that stable yet so you it emits some high energy light and it gets more stable.
same parents and daughter
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