The chloroplasts of plants use a process called ______________ to capture light energy from the sun and convert it to chemical energy stored in sugars and other organic molecules.
__________ produce their organic molecules from CO2 and other inorganic raw materials obtained from the environment. They are the _________ of the biosphere.
____________ live on organic compounds produced by other organisms. They are considered the _________ of the biosphere.
____________ are the sites of photosynthesis. Any green part of a plant contains these.
The color of a leaf comes from ___________, the green pigment in the chloroplasts. They play an important roles in the absorption of light energy during photosynthesis. They appear green because they absorb red and blue light, while reflecting green.
Chloroplasts are found mainly in _________ cells forming the tissues in the interior of the leaf.
O2 molecules exit and CO2 molecules enter the leaf through microscopic pores, called _______, in the leaf.
A typical mesophyll cell has __ to __ chloroplasts.
organic compounds & O2; CO2 & H2O
Powered by light, plants produce _______ _________ and __ from ___ and ___
Like respiration, photosynthesis is a _____ ________, with a series of oxidation-reduction reactions occurring in a specific sequence.
Light boosts the _________ ______ of electrons as they move from water to sugar.
light reactions; Calvin cycle
The two sequential processes in photosynthesis are _____ _________ and the ______ _____.
The _____ _________ convert solar energy to chemical energy.
In light reactions, light energy absorbed by chlorophyll in the thylakoids drives the transfer of electrons and hydrogen from water to _____ forming NADPH.
_____,an electron acceptor, provides energized electrons (reducing power) to the Calvin cycle.
The Calvin Cycle begins with the incorporation of CO2 into an organic molecule via ______ ________.
Light reactions occur in the __________
The light reactions convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ___ and _____.
The distance between the crests of electromagnetic waves is called the __________.
The entire range of electromagnetic radiation is the _______________ ________.
The range of the electromagnetic spectrum, which is called the visible light, is a narrow band between ___ and ___ nm.
Light travels as a wave, but many of its properties are those of a discrete particle, a ______, which has a fixed amount of energy.
Photons with _______ wavelengths have more energy.
reflected, transmitted, absorbed
When light meets matter, it may be ________, ___________, or ________ by the matter.
Different _______ absorb photons of different wavelengths.
The dominant pigment in the thylakoid, ___________ _, absorbs best in the red and blue pigments and least in the green.
The collection of photosynthetic pigments determine an overall ______ ________ for photosynthesis.
___________ _, has a different absorption spectrum and funnels the energy from these wavelengths to chlorophyll a.
___________ can funnel their energy from other wavelengths to chlorophyll a.
Carotenoids participate in _______________ against excess light.
Electrons move from its ______ _____ to its excited state.
Excited electrons are ________.
Some pigments, including chlorophyll release a photon of light in a process called ____________, as well as heat.
In the thylakoid membranes, chlorophyll is organized along with proteins and smaller organic molecules into ____________.
When any antenna molecule absorbs a photon, it is transmitted from molecule to molecule until it reaches a particular chlorophyll a molecule, the ________ ______.
primary electron acceptor
At the reaction center, a _______ ________ ________ removes an excited electron from the reaction's center chlorophyll a, which starts the light reactions.
A photosystem's reaction center chlorophyll and primary electron acceptor are surrounded by an _______ _______, which functions in the chloroplasts as a light-harvesting unit.
There are ___ types of photosystems
__________ _ has a reaction center chlorophyll a, the P700 center, that has an absorption peak at 700 nm.
___________ _ has a reaction center chlorophyll a (P680 center), that has an absorption peak at 680 nm.
During light reactions, there are two possible routes for electron flow: ______ and _________.
__________ refers to the breakdown of water to supply electrons, to the noncyclic electron flow.
_________ _____________________, the predominant route for light reactions produces both ATP and NADPH.
photosystem 2; photosystem 1
In noncyclic photophosphorylation electrons are passed from ___________ _ to ___________ _ creating ATP and NADPH.
electron transport chain
Photoexcited electrons pass along an ________ _________ _____ before ending up at an oxidized photosystem 1 reaction center.
In noncyclic photophosphorylation passing of electrons from PS2 to PS1 creates ___.
In noncyclic photophosphorylation passing of excited electrons to the ETC produces _____
cyclic electron flow
Under certain conditions, photoexcited electrons from PS1, but not PS2, can take an alternate pathway know as ______ ________ ____.
When electrons take an alternate path and flow along the ETC from PS1, they generate ATP by ______ ____________________.
Cyclic electron flow allows the chloroplasts to generate enough surplus ATP to satisfy the higher demand for ATP (opposed to NADPH) in the ______ _____.
Chloroplasts and Mitochondria generate ATP by the same mechanism known as ____________.
___ ________ molecules harness the generate by the proton pump and make ATP as H+ diffuses back across the membrane.
When illuminated, the pH inside the thylakoid space drops to about _ and the pH in the stroma increases to _.
The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH produced by the light reactions to convert CO2 to _____.
___ enters the Calvin cycle and leaves as sugar.
The Calvin cycle occurs in the _______ of the chloroplasts.
The actual sugar product of the Calvin cycle is not glucose, but a 3 carbon sugar called ________________-_-___________.
Each turn of the Calvin cycle fixes 1 carbon. For the net synthesis of a G3P molecule the cycle must take place _ times.
In order to produce 1 glucose molecule, it would require _ cycles and the fixation of _ CO2 molecules in the Calvin cycle.
carbon fixation, reduction, and regeneration of CO2
Name the 3 phases of the Calvin cycle
ribulose biphosphate (RuBP)
In carbon fixation phase of the Calvin cycle, each CO2 molecule is attache to the 5-carbon sugar ____.
The carbon fixation phase is catalyzed by _______.
The 6 carbon molecule formed in the carbon fixation phase splits into two 3 carbon molecules known as _-_________________ per CO2
During the reduction stage of the Calvin cycle a phosphate group is lost and then gained transforming the 3PGA molecule into a ________________-_-_________.
After 3 turns of the Calvin cycle 6 G3P molecules are produced. Only _ can leave the cell as energy for the plant. The other 5 must be rearranged to produce 5 more RuBP.
The Calvin cycle consumes a lot of energy, _ ATP and _ NADPH per CO2 fixed
light independent reactions
The Calvin cycle is also referred to as the _____ ___________ ________, in that they do not require light.
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