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The interaction of sight and sound offers tremendous
creative flexibility and makes possible dramatic, lifelike representations of products and services. "
TV commercials can be used to convey a mood or image for a brand as well as to develop emotional or entertaining appeals that help make a dull product appear interesting. "
TV is an excellent medium for demonstrating a product or service as well as telling a story about a brand to highlight its features and benefits or create an emotional attachment.
Television advertising makes it possible to reach large audiences. "
Becauseofitsabilitytoreachlargeaudiencesinacost-efficient manner, TV is a popular medium among companies selling mass-consumption products. " Companieswithwidespreaddistributionandavailabilityoftheir products and services use TV to reach the mass market and deliver their advertising messages at a very low cost per thousand. "
Televisionhasbecomeindispensabletolargeconsumer packaged-goods marketers, telecommunication companies, carmakers, and major retailers.
Television is basically intrusive in that commercials impose themselves on viewers as they watch their favorite programs. Unless we make a special effort to avoid commercials, most of us are exposed to thousands of them each year.
The increase in viewing options and the penetration of DVDs, DVRs, remote controls, and other automatic devices have made it easier for TV viewers to avoid commercial messages."
However, the remaining viewers are likely to devote some attention to many advertising messages.
Television has often been criticized for being a nonselective medium, difficult to reach a precisely defined market segment. "
Some selectivity is possible due to variations in the composition of audiences as a result of program content, broadcast time, and geographic coverage."
With the growth of cable TV, advertisers refine their coverage further by appealing to groups with specific interests such as sports, news, history, the arts, or music, as well as specific demographic groups. "
Advertisers can also adjust their media strategies to take advantage of different geographic markets through local or spot ads in specific market areas. "
Ads can be scheduled to run repeatedly or to take advantage of special occasions. "
The high cost of TV stems not only from the expense of buying airtime but also from the costs of producing a quality commercial. "
Production costs for a national brand 30-second spot average more than $350,000 and can reach over $1 million for more elaborate commercials."
More advertisers are using media-driven creative strategies that require production of a variety of commercials, which drive up their costs. "
Even local ads can be expensive to produce and often are not of high quality."
The high costs of producing and airing commercials often price small and medium-size advertisers out of the market.
Advertisers who are seeking a very specific, often small, target audience find the coverage of TV often extends beyond their market, reducing its cost effectiveness. "
Geographic selectivity can be a problem for local advertisers such as retailers, since a station bases its rates on the total market area it reaches. "
Audience selectivity is improving as advertisers target certain groups of consumers through the type of program or day and/or time when they choose to advertise."
However, TV still does not offer as much audience selectivity as radio, magazines, newspapers, or direct mail for reaching precise segments of the market."
TV commercials usually last only 30 seconds or less and leave nothing tangible for the viewer to examine or consider."
Commercials have become shorter and shorter as the demand for a limited amount of broadcast time has intensified and advertisers try to get more impressions from their media budgets. "
Thirty-second spots remain the dominant commercial length, accounting for 51 percent of network spots and nearly 70 percent of non-network ads. "
An important factor in the decline in commercial length has been the spiraling inflation in media costs over the past decade. With the average cost of a prime-time spot now exceeding $100,000, many advertisers see shorter commercials as the only way to keep their media costs in line.
he problems of fleeting messages and shorter commercials are compounded by the fact that the advertiser's message is only one of many spots and other non-programming material seen during a commercial break, so it may have trouble being noticed. "
The use of shorter commercials by advertisers has contributed to the problem."
Clutter also increases when the networks and individual stations run promotional announcements for their shows, make more time available for commercials, and redistribute time to popular programs.
When advertisers buy time on a TV program, they are not purchasing guaranteed exposure but rather the opportunity to communicate a message to large numbers of consumers. "
There is increasing evidence that the size of the viewing audience shrinks during a commercial break. "
People leave the room to go to the bathroom or to get something to eat or drink, or they are distracted in some other way during commercials."
Getting consumers to pay attention to commercials has become an even greater challenge as many homes have a DVR."
Most households have either cable or satellite service and receive an average of more than 100 channels, which means there are more viewing options available. "
These factors have contributed to the problems of zipping and zapping. Zipping occurs when viewers fast-forward through commercials as they play back a previously recorded program. "
The problem is being compounded by the fact that many of the networks schedule their most popular shows against one another on the same nights (usually Wednesday and Thursday) and in the same time slots.
Refers to changing channels to avoid commercials."
A Nielsen study found that most commercial zapping occurs at the beginning and, to a lesser extent, the end of a program. "
Zapping at these points is likely to occur because commercial breaks are so long and predictable. "
Zapping has also been fueled by the 24-hour continuous-format programming on cable channels such as CNN, MTV2, and ESPN. "
Research shows that young adults zap more than older adults and that men are more likely to zap than women."
Critics often single out TV commercials because of their pervasiveness and the intrusive nature of the medium. "
Consumers are seen as defenseless against the barrage of TV ads, since they cannot control the transmission of the message and what appears on their screens."
Viewers dislike TV advertising when they believe it is offensive, uninformative, or shown too frequently or when they do not like its content."
Studies have shown that of the various forms of advertising, distrust is generally the highest for TV commercials."
Concern has been raised about the effects of TV advertising on specific groups, such as children or older adults.
Spreading messages by purchasing airtime from a television network
Assembles a series of affiliates to which it supplies programming and services
Buying period that occurs before the
TV season begins
Buying period that occurs throughout the season
Commercials shown on local TV stations
Non-network advertising done by a national advertiser
Advertiser assumes responsibility for the production and content of the program, and the advertising that appears within it
Allows a firm to:
Several advertisers buying commercial time on a particular program
Purchased from the local stations, appear during adjacencies
Time periods adjacent to network programs
Delivers TV signals through fiber or coaxial wire
Independent local stations that send signals nationally via satellite to cable operators
Number of cable systems and networks in a geographic area are joined for advertising purposes
Reaching very specialized markets
§ Increases in the number of channels
§ Changes in government regulations
§ Competition in the programming distribution business
§ Reaching relevant audiences § Growth due to multiplexing
Transmitting multiple channels from one network
Represents 1 percent of all the television households in a parLcular area tuned to a specific program
Non overlapping areas used for planning, buying, and evaluating TV audiences
Local people meter (LPM)
Local people meter (LPM) - Used to measure the largest local markets
Viewing audiences in every local television market are measured at least four times a year
Measures of the average viewership of the commercials both live and up to three days after the ads are played back on a DVR
Measures the number of people who:
§ Cost and efficiency § Receptivity
§ Mental imagery
§ Image transfer: Images of a TV commercial are
implanted into a radio spot
§ Integrated marketing opportunities
Network radio - Purchased on a network basis using one of the national networks
§ Spot radio provides:
§ Greater flexibility in selecting markets
§ Individual stations
§ Airtime and a chance to adjust the message for local market conditions
§ Local radio - Purchased from individual stations by local companies
§ Person estimates - Estimated number of people listening
§ Rating - Percentage of listeners in the survey area population
§ Share - Percentage of the total estimated listening audience
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