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A chemical is called
when it flows through the blood to other organs throughout the body
What conclusion can be drawn from the unusual gender identity cases from the dominican republic?
Sexual orientation has been linked to all of the following EXCEPT:
Which of the following would cause a genetic male to develop a mostly feminine anatomy?
a condition that prevents androgens from exerting their effects
In hypothetical situations, women are more upset than men by _____ infidelity.
Some studies have linked male homosexuality to having a greater number of:
Gender Identity can be defined as:
What would cause a genetic male to develop a female or intermediate appearance?
When examining the data on sexual orientation of twins and other sibling what seems to be the most reasonable conclusion?
Sexual orientation is determined by genetics as well as other factors
In real life situations men are upset ____ women by emotional infidelity.
Excessive androgen secretion from the adrenal gland is known as:
congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Of the various hypotheses based on hormone levels which is the most plausible explanation for male homosexuality?
Prenatal testosterone levels were low during some sensitive period
A true hermaphrodite is an individual:
Sex differences are to ___ as gender differences are to ____.
Exposure of a female rat to highly stressful experiences late in pregnancy has what effect on the development of her male offspring?
They respond sexually to male partners although their anatomy is the same as other males
Genetic males whose penis is damaged or removed shortly after birth and are then reared as females:
often asked to be reassigned as males
What has been found in studies that relate male homosexuality in humans to prenatal stressors?
Some XY males have poorly developed genitals as a result of:
Girls who are exposed to higher than normal androgen levels during prenatal development tend to:
choose more typically masculine toys to play with
The interstitial nucleus 3 of the anterior hypothalamus is mown to be more than:
In what way are people with androgen insensitively most like a normal male?
What measurable differences are apparently related to homosexual versus heterosexual orientation in adult men?
Which of the following mate- selection preferences is stronger for men than for women?
Females with CAH may have benefitted prenatally by treatment with:
Some XX females have either an ovary and a testis or two testes or a mixture of testis and ovay tissue on each side as a result of:
When Simon LeVay examined interstitial nucleus 3 in 41 people who had die, he found that in the homosexual males in his sample this nucleus was:
On the average homosexual and heterosexual people:
Someone with testicular feminization:
Which of the following tends to be more important for women than men in choosing a mate?
The frequency of homosexuality in men is highest if:
A more recent study on differences in the INAH3 suggests that compared to heterosexual men, homosexual men have:
Certain males in the Dominican Republic were born with low levels of the enzyme that converts testosterone into dihydrotestosterone. This resulted in:
Minimal penis growth early in life
People whose sexual development is intermediate or ambiguous are called:
Certain individuals with an XY chromosome pattern have the genital appearance of a female. This condition is known as:
A “True hermaphrodite” is someone who:
has one testis and one ovary
At this point, the conclusions of studies on the evolutionary interpretations of mating behavior suggest that these behaviors are:
Some evolutionary psychologists say that the one- mate strategy is ideal for women due to her limited number of possible offspring, one objection to this might be that:
What would cause a genetic female to develop a partly masculinized anatomy?
A sensitive period is:
Which of the following is true of androgens and estrogens?
____ prepares the uterus for pregnancy.
People typically experience a state of complete relaxation shortly after orgasm, this occurs due to the release of:
In one study women in the follicular phase when the probability of becoming pregnant is greatest, preferred male faces that were:
“Female hormones” are referred to as:
The hormones LH, FSH. and estradiol reach a peak:
Mullerian ducts are found in:
The two major classes of sex hormones are:
What causes the primitive gonads to develop into masculine structure?
The most effective way to stimulate sexual behavior in a female rodent is to inject her with:
At the end of the menstrual cycle in women, the levels of LH and FSH _____; the levels of estradiol and progesterone ______.
Steroid hormones produce their effects by:
Male sexual behavior depends heavily on neurons in the medial pre optic area of the hypothalamus releasing which substance?
If you inject a male rat with estrogen shortly after birth it will:
What hormone more than triples in concentration in the blood of human males during orgasm and has been tentatively linked to sexual pleasure?
The sensitive period for human genital formation is approximately:
The difference between males and females in the sexually dimorphic nucleus is that it is:
Women are more likely to initiate sexual activity when:
estrogen levels are high
Pregnant women often experience nausea because of the heightened activity of the _____ receptor.
The result of all the testosterone- induced changes during sexual differentiation is:
Damage to the medial pre optic area of the hypothalamus in rats would most likely result in:
In general when do hormones produce “organizing effects”?
Which of the following is most likely an example of the organizing effects of sex hormones?
Hormones are most essential to which aspect of mammalian prenatal behavior?
An injection of testosterone in a castrated male rat:
An organizing effect differs from an activating effect of a hormone in that an organizing effect:
Whereas dopamine stimulates sexual activity, the neurotransmitter ______ inhibits it.
Which of the following time points would women most likely initiate sexual activity?
Birth control pills prevent pregnancy by:
Wolffian ducts are found in:
According to rodent studies testosterone exerts a major part of its effect on:
Estradiol normally found in the blood stream of a female rat fetus neither masculinizes nor feminizes its development because it is:
All of the following are hormones that affect the brain and the genitals EXCEPT?
A females rat is more likely to develop a preference for a cage where sexual activity with a male rat occurs if:
What would cause a mammal to develop the anatomy of a male regardless of its chromosomes?
If a female rat is injected with testosterone during the last few days before being born or the first few days afterward at maturity:
The process of ______ changes testosterone into estradiol.
Research suggests that ____ levels correlates with several aspects of motherly attention to an infant.
Pheromones of new born rats:
Which of the following depends on an organizing effect of hormones?
Which of the following characteristics is most likely under the control of sex- linked genes?
_____ contributes to female development including some aspects of brain differentiation.
What develops from the Mullerian ducts?
Dopamine stimulation of D2 receptors facilitates:
The sexually dimorphic nucleus is located in the:
Sex- limited genes:
Many female mammals become very attentive after delivering their babies largely because of a sudden:
One important difference between organizing effects and activating effects of hormones is that activating effects:
The overall mechanism of early sexual differentiation has been described by saying that natures “default setting” is to make every mammal:
Because of the effects of hormones during early development, the female hypothalamus, UNLIKE the male hypothalamus, is capable of:
If a female rat fetus developed without any alpha- fetoprotein, her hypothalamus would:
In rodents testosterone is converted to ____ in the hypothalamus.
Toward the middle of the menstrual cycle, the follicle produces increasing amounts of:
Male meadow voles can be genetically altered to remain with a female he mated with by increasing _____ levels.
Alcohol, marijuana, and haloperidol tend to have a(n) _______ effect on prenatal sexual development.
Which of the following is unique to genetic males early in development?
“Male hormones” are referred to as:
If a female rat is injected with testosterone during the last few days before being born or the first few day after maturity her:
Parts of the hypothalamus can generate a cyclic pattern of hormone release in:
What would cause a male mammal to develop an anatomy that looks like a females?
The following are true about drugs that prevent testosterone from being aromatized to estradiol EXCEPT?
Increased levels of estrogen affect receptor sites in the brain by:
One way that estrogen increases sexual responsiveness is by:
increasing the sensitivity of nerves in the public area
If a female rat is injected with testosterone during the last few days before being born or the first few days afterward the injection will:
By blocking dopamine release some antidepressant drugs that increase serotonin levels also:
Follicle- Stimulating hormone is released by the:
Drugs that in some cases have reduced the frequency of sexual offenses work by:
Why is it impossible for an individual to develop a complete normal set of external female genitalia AND a complete normal set of external male genitalia?
In normal female rats, release of dopamine in the medial pre optic are activity is primed by:
A temporary growth of dendritic spines on dendrites in the hippocampus has been correlated with:
In mammals whether the anatomy develops in the male or female pattern depends:
In women which hormone stimulates the growth of a follicle in the ovary?
In castrated male rats, the medial pre optic area:
has as much dopamine as normal rats, but the presence of a receptive female does not evoke much release of it
The most widely used and most effective birth control pill is one that contains which hormone?
When do the organizing effects of sex hormones occur in humans?
Although harmful in excessive amounts the synthesis of steroids depends on:
What develops from the wolffian ducts?
Genitals for males and females develop from ______; internal reproductive structures develop from _____.
A women’s hypothalamus and pituitary interact with the ____ to produce the menstrual cycle.
During the menstrual cycle estradiol and progesterone levels increase and decrease under the influence of hormones released by which gland?
In the middle of the menstrual cycle an increased release of estradiol causes a(n):
If a never pregnant female rat is left for 5- 10 days with a litter of babies she will:
Triptorelin used to treat sex offenders blocks ____ thereby decreasing _______ production.
What would cause a genetic female mammal to develop an anatomical appearance resembling a males?
When do the organizing effects of sex hormones occur in rats?
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