A change in behavior, or potential behavior, that results from experience.
What are examples of habituation and sensitization and why are they important?
Habituation is when you slow or stop responding to an event that has become familiar. Sensitization is when your response to and event increases with repeated exposure. They both present a change in behavior, therefore learning.
How is a connection formed between the CS and US?
A conditioned stimulus will become the signal for an unconditioned stimulus when it provides information about the delivery of an unconditioned stimulus.
How is second order conditioning used in advertising?
Advertisers use celebrities people like to endorse products, which people will most likely associate with pleasure.
What are some real life examples of stimulus generalization?
Getting sick after eating a certain food, you will most likely avoid that food.
Having a bad experience at the dentist may cause you to cringe at the sound of any drill
What are some real life examples of stimulus discrimination?
knowing the difference between a wolf and dog helps you choose to run or not respond.
What happens to learning in acquisition, extinction, and spontaneous recovery?
Extinction: the conditioned stimulus is presented without the unconditioned stimulus repeatedly, and it loses its signaling purposes. Spontaneous Recovery: recovery of an extinguished conditioned response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus
What is the difference between classical and operant conditioning?
In classical conditioning learning relations between events that are out of ones control. In operant conditioning organisms learn about the consequences of their actions.
Why is reinforcement not defined in terms of pleasant or rewarding or unpleasant or unrewarding consequences?
What is pleasant for one person may not be pleasant for another.
What do the terms positive and negative refer to with respect to reinforcement?
Positive means something when presented after a response increases the likelihood of a response. Negative means something when removed increases the likelihood of the response.
What are some examples of conditioned reinforcers?
Stimulus that earns value through prior learning e.x. Money
What are some examples of positive and negative punishers?
Positive: scolding a child for hassling the cat. Negative: withholding weekly allowance if a child's room is messy
What are some practical considerations in the use of punishment?
Punishment only suppresses behavior because it does not teach one how to act appropriately.
What are some real life examples of fixed-ratio, variable-ratio, fixed-interval, and variable-interval schedules of reinforcement?
Fixed-ratio: Duane gets $1 every time he cleans his room Variable-ratio: sometimes Duane get $1 after cleaning his room Fixed-interval: Duane gets $1 every third time he cleans his room Variable-interval: on a random weekday Duane gets $1 if he cleans his room
What are some examples of shaping with humans?
offering a reward in golf for making contact with the ball then becoming more strict in the criteria to help teach them the proper swing
How does operant conditioning explain superstitious behaviors?
Accidental reinforcement occurs because someone links cause-and-effect between the superstition and the result, but they have no relation
What are some examples of observational learning in animals?
Baby rats eat what the older rats eat
red-winged blackbirds won't eat a food if another bird gets sick form eating it.
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