Last Modified: 2016-03-08
- Length - carbon skeletons vary in length
- Branching - skeletons may be unbranched or branched
- Double bonds - the skeleton may have double bonds, which can vary in location.
- Rings -some carbon skeletons are arranged inrings. In the abbreviated structural formula for each compound each corner represents a carbon and its attached hydrogens.
- (-OH or OH-) a hydrogen antomis bonded to an oxygen atom, which in turnis bondedto the carbon skeleton of the organic molecule.
- Compound name - alcohols (ex. ethanol)
- is polar as a result of the electrons spending more time near the electronegative oxygen atom.
- Can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules, helping dissolve organic compounds such as sugar.
- (>CO) The carbonyl group consists of a carbon atom joined to an oxygen atom by a double bond. Ketones - carbonyl group w/i a carbon skeleton. Aldehydes - carbonyl group at the end carbon skeleton. Acetone is the simplest ketone. Propanal - an aldehyde. A ketone and an aldehyde maybe structural isomers with different properties, as is the case for acetone and propanal.
- These two groups are found in sugars, two groups Aldoses (contains aldehyde) and Ketoses (ketone).
- When an oxygen atom is doublebonded to a carbon atom that is also bonded to an -OH group, the entire assembly of atoms is called carboxyl group (-cooh)
- Carboxylic acids or organic acids
- acetic acid which gives vinegar its sour taste
- acidic props - the covalant bond between oxygenand hydrogen is polar
- found in cells in the ionized form with a charge of 1-and called a carboxylate ion (specifically acetate ion)
- Amino group (-NH2) consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and to the carbon skeleton.
- Glycine - because it also has a carboxyl group, glycine is both an amine and a carboxylic acid; coompounds with both groups are amino acids.
- Acts as a base; can pick up an H+ from the surrounding solution
- Ionized, with a charge of 1+ under cellular conditions.
- Sulfhydryl group consists of a sulfur atom bonded to an atom of hydrogens; resembles a hydroxyl group in shape.
- Cysteine is an important sulfur-containing amino acid.
- Two sulfhydryl groups can react, forming a covalent bond. This 'cross-linking" helps stablize protein structure.
- Cross-linkings of cysteines in hair proteins maintains the curliness or straightness of hair.
- phospate group, a phosphorus atom is bonded to 4 oxygen atoms; one oxygen is bonded to the carbon skeletons; two oxygens carry negative charges.
- organic phosphates
- in additon to taking part in many important chemical reactions in cells, glycerol phospate providdes the backbone for phospholipids the most prevalent molecules in cell membranes.
- contributes negative charge to the molecule of which it is a part
- has the potential to react with water, releasing engergy
- Methyl group consist of a carbon bonded to 3 hydrogen atoms. the methyl group may be attached to a carbon or to a diff atom.
- methylated compounds
- 5 methyl cytidine isa component of DNA that has been modified by additon of methly group.
- additionan of a methyl group to DNA or to molecules bound to DNA affects expression of genes.
- arrangement of methyl groups in male and female sex hormones affects their shape and function.
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