The belief in a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical and chemical laws, provided the foundation for the new discipline of organic chemistry.
1953 Helped to bring the abiotic (nonliving) synthesis of organic compounds into the context of evolution in a classic experiment.
the view that physical and chmical laws govern all natural phenomena, including the proceses of life.
(each arbon atom acts as an intersection point from which a molecule can branch off in as many as four directions.
is the number of covalent bonds an atom can form. It is generally equal to the number of electrons required to complete the valence shell.
organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen.
Variations in carbon skeletons
Length - carbon skeletons vary in length
Branching - skeletons may be unbranched or branched
Double bonds - the skeleton may have double bonds, which can vary in location.
Rings -some carbon skeletons are arranged inrings. In the abbreviated structural formula for each compound each corner represents a carbon and its attached hydrogens.
Compounds that have the samenumbers of atoms of the same elements but different structure.
Differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms. The number of possible isomers increases tremendously as carbon skeletons increase in size. There are 3 forms but 18 possible structural isomers of C20H42. Structural isomers may also differ in the location of double bonds.
have the same covalent partnerships, but they differ in spatial arrangements. inflexibility to double bond.
Isomers that are mirror images of each other.
The middle carbon of an enantiomer that is attached to four different atoms.
A specific configuration of atoms comonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions.
(-OH or OH-) a hydrogen antomis bonded to an oxygen atom, which in turnis bondedto the carbon skeleton of the organic molecule.
Compound name - alcohols (ex. ethanol)
is polar as a result of the electrons spending more time near the electronegative oxygen atom.
Can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules, helping dissolve organic compounds such as sugar.
(>CO) The carbonyl group consists of a carbon atom joined to an oxygen atom by a double bond. Ketones - carbonyl group w/i a carbon skeleton. Aldehydes - carbonyl group at the end carbon skeleton. Acetone is the simplest ketone. Propanal - an aldehyde. A ketone and an aldehyde maybe structural isomers with different properties, as is the case for acetone and propanal.
These two groups are found in sugars, two groups Aldoses (contains aldehyde) and Ketoses (ketone).
When an oxygen atom is doublebonded to a carbon atom that is also bonded to an -OH group, the entire assembly of atoms is called carboxyl group (-cooh)
Carboxylic acids or organic acids
acetic acid which gives vinegar its sour taste
acidic props - the covalant bond between oxygenand hydrogen is polar
found in cells in the ionized form with a charge of 1-and called a carboxylate ion (specifically acetate ion)
Amino group (-NH2) consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and to the carbon skeleton.
Glycine - because it also has a carboxyl group, glycine is both an amine and a carboxylic acid; coompounds with both groups are amino acids.
Acts as a base; can pick up an H+ from the surrounding solution
Ionized, with a charge of 1+ under cellular conditions.
Sulfhydryl group consists of a sulfur atom bonded to an atom of hydrogens; resembles a hydroxyl group in shape.
Cysteine is an important sulfur-containing amino acid.
Two sulfhydryl groups can react, forming a covalent bond. This 'cross-linking" helps stablize protein structure.
Cross-linkings of cysteines in hair proteins maintains the curliness or straightness of hair.
phospate group, a phosphorus atom is bonded to 4 oxygen atoms; one oxygen is bonded to the carbon skeletons; two oxygens carry negative charges.
in additon to taking part in many important chemical reactions in cells, glycerol phospate providdes the backbone for phospholipids the most prevalent molecules in cell membranes.
contributes negative charge to the molecule of which it is a part
has the potential to react with water, releasing engergy
Methyl group consist of a carbon bonded to 3 hydrogen atoms. the methyl group may be attached to a carbon or to a diff atom.
5 methyl cytidine isa component of DNA that has been modified by additon of methly group.
additionan of a methyl group to DNA or to molecules bound to DNA affects expression of genes.
arrangement of methyl groups in male and female sex hormones affects their shape and function.
ATP or adenosine triphosphate
An adenine containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed. This energy is used to drive endergonic reactions in cells.
an organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. Amio acids serve as the monomers of polypeptides (a polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptie bonds.
The study of carbon compounds
What is a double bond in a carbon skeleton
An action that could produce a carbonyl group?
the replacement of the -OH of a carboxyl group with hydrogen.
Which chemical group is most likely to be responsible for an organic molecule behaving as a base
A set of chemical reactions
having an affinity for water.
Having an aversion to water; tending to coalesceand form droplets in water.
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