Psychodynamic-Focus on the unconscious behaviorist-Observable behavior humanistic-Individuals ability to make rational choices and developing to max potential cognitive-Human though and process of knowing and thinking, behavior occurs because people thing biological-Function of genes, brain, nervous sytem, and endocrine system evolutionary-Behavioral and mental adaptiveness sociocultural-Cross-cultural differences in causes and consequences of behavior.
Basic principles of critical thinking
Extraordinary claims-The more a claim contradicts what we know, the more evidence we need to prove it true Falsifiablility-Claims must be capable of being disproved. Occam's Razor-Generally should pick the simpler explanation Replicability-Finding must be capable of being duplicated by other researchers using the same techniques Ruling out Rival Hypotheses Correlation v. Causation-Two things that are associated with each other doesn't mean that one causes the other.
Overuse of ad hock immunizing hypothesis-Escaping loopholes to protect from falsification. Lack of self-correction-Incorrect claims never seem to go away Exaggerated claims-Tend to promise remarkable or dramatic cure but rarely deliver. Overreliance on anecdotes-"I know a person who..." Evasion of peer review-Bypass the process of getting others to screen the work of their colleagues. Absense of connectivity- Not cumulative research Psychobabble-Language that sounds highly scientific that impresses
Watching behavior in real world settings. High in external validity-the extent to which we can generalize findings in real world settings. Good for observing animals and people and how they act in the real world.
Research design that examines one person or a small number of people in depth, often over an extended time period. Can help provide existence proofs-demonstrations that a given psychological phenomenon can occur. Also provide an opportunity to study rare or unusual phenomenon.
Research design that examine the extent to which two variables are associated. Can tell when two variables are related, but that does not necessarily mean that one caused the other.
Research design characterized by random assignment of participants to conditions and manipulation of an independent variable. They permit cause and effect inferences.
Questionnaires to assess a variety of characteristics, such as personality traits, mental illnesses, and interests. Easy to administer.
Positive-As one value goes up, the other value goes up Negative-When the value of one goes up, the other goes down Zero-No correlation, variables don't go together.
Basic characteristics of experimental design
The experimenter randomly sorts participants into one of two groups(experimental group and control group). Then they manipulate the independent variable. Permits us to infer cause and effects relationships. Some limitations are the placebo effect, the nocebo effect(harm resulting from the mere expectation of harm), the experimenter expectancy effect(researchers lead them to unintentionally bias the outcome of a study), and the hawthorne effect
Variable that an experimenter manipulates
Variable that an experimenter measures to see whether the manipulation has an effect.
Difference between the experimental and control groups other than the independent variable.
Randomly sorting participants into two groups.
Procedure that ensures every person in a population has an equal change of being chosen to participate.
extent to which we can generalize finding to real-world settings
Extent to which we can draw cause-and-effect inferences from a study
Improvement resulting from the mere expectation of improvement
Phenomenon in which participants knowledge that they're being studied can affect their behavior.
Cues that participants pick up from a study that allow them to generate guesses regarding the researcher's hypotheses
In an experiment, the group of participants that doesn't receive the manipulation
Institutional review board-reviews all research carefully with an eye toward protecting participant against abuses. Informed consent-Informing research participants of what is involved in a study before asking them to participate. Tuskegee-Men never informed that they had syphilis, nor that there was an effective treatment, and didn't tell them that they were subjects. Heightened the appreciation for protecting the rights of human subjects.
Mental shortcuts that help us to streamline our thinking and make sense of our world. It can lead to oversimplication
Involves judging the probability of an event by its superficial similarity to a prototype.
How common a characteristic or behavior is in the general population.
Involves estimating the likelihood of an occurrence based on the ease with which it comes to our minds.
Overestimate how well we could have successfully forecasted known outcomes.
Natural tendency to seek our evidence that supports our hypothesis and to ignore, downplay, or distort evidence that doesn't.
Tendency to overestimate our ability to make correct prediction
Numerical characterization that describe data
Mathematical methods that allow us to determine whether we can generalize findings from our sample to the full population
Results are believable, has occurred by chance less than 1 in 20 times.
Investigation of the consistency of patterns of results across large numbers of studies conducted in different laboratories.
Consistency of measurement
Extent to which a measure's assesses what it claims to measure
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