Consists of piecing together small simple molecules to make larger more complex molecules
Consists of a small dense nucleus
contains positively charged protons and neutral neutrons and surrounded by negatively charged electrons.
equals the number of protons in its nucleus
the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus
Electrons are located in them. Can hold a maximum of two electrons
Orbitals are grouped in shells.
located in the outermost shell.
contains the nucleus and the inner electrons
has a stable electron configuration
composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions
give up electrons and from cations
accept electrons and from anions
formed when two atoms share one or more electron pairs.
consists of two or more atoms joined by covalent bonds.
the energy necessary to break a mole of covalent bonds. The amount of energy depends on the type of bond broken
the average distance between two covalently bonded atoms
molecular fragment with an odd number of unshared electrons
The ability of an element to form chains of its own atoms through covalent bonding
Polar covalent bond
covalent bond in which the electron pair is not shared equally between the two atoms
two electron pairs are shared between two atoms
Nonbonding electrons or unshared electron pairs
Reside on one atom
three electron pairs are shared between two atoms
The number of bonds that an atom of the element can form
gives the number of different atoms present
indicates how those atoms are arranged
molecules with the same number and kinds of atoms but different arrangements of the atoms.
structural or constitutional isomers
have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas
atoms are bonded one after another
some atoms form branches from the longest continuous chain
on an atom in a covalently bonded molecule or ion is the number of valence electrons in the neutral atom, minus the number of covalent bonds to the atom and the number of unshared electrons on the atom
two or more structures with identical arrangements of atoms but different arrangements of the electrons. If resonance structures can be written, the true structure of the molecule or ion is a resonance hybrid of the contributing resonance structures.
Show how electrons are moved in resonance structures and in reactions
indicate the movement of single electrons
Point from reactants to products in chemical reaction equations
double-headed straight arrow
indicates resonance structures when between two stuctures
the space occupied by electrons in a molecule
lies along the axis between two bonded atoms; a pair of electrons in a sigma orbital is called a sigma bond
sp3 hybrid orbital
a p-shaped orbital that is one part s and three parts p in character
the angle made by two covalent bonds to the same atom
electrostatic potential map
shows the distribution of electrons in a molecule. Red indicates partial negative charge, blue indicates partial positive charge
contain no rings
contain rings of carbon atoms
have rings containing at least one atom that is not carbon.
groups of atoms that have characteristic chemical properties regardless of the molecular framework to which they are attached.
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