the most popular orientation of mental health professionals, a comprehensive model for thinking and working across systems.
he informed and intentional application of clinical methods and interpersonal stances derived from established psychological principals for the purpose of assisting people to modify their behaviors, cognitions, emotions, and/or other personal characteristics in directions that to the participants seem desireable.
non specific or common factors
a central and recognizable core of psychotherapy that glues together variations of psychotherapy which are given in the book as support, interpretation, insight, behavior change, a good therapeutic relationship, and certain therapist characteristics
seek to induce positive expectations in clients
when clients improve simply because special attention is paid them.
the specific or unique contributions of a therapy system
processes of change
the intermediate level of analysis that meaningful points of convergence and contention may be found among psychotherapy systems
increasing an individual’s consciousness
insight or awareness therapies
they begin by working to raise the individual’s level of awareness which has frequently been assumed to be a human characteristic that emerged with the evolution of language.
when the information given to a client concerns the individual’s own actions and experiences
corrective emotional experiences
when the cathartic reactions come directly from within a person. An intense emotional experience produces a psychological correction.
the belief that cathartic reactions can be evoked by observing emotional scenes in the environment
the power of choice in producing behavior change,
when the information given a client concerns environmental events
the individual becoming more aware of new alternatives, including the deliberate creation of new alternatives for living through the process of choosing
when changes in the environment make more alternatives available to individuals, such as more jobs being open to gays and lesbians
Changing our behaviour to the stimuli
Changing the environment to minimize the probability of the stimuli occurring
Behavior changes made by modifying the contingencies in the environment.
Modifying our internal responses to external consequences without changing those consequences
These include the psychoanalytic, existential, and humanistic traditions. Consciousness raising, catharsis, and choosing are at the heart of these traditions.
These include the behavioral, cognitive, and systemic traditions. Conditional stimuli and contingency control are at the core of these traditions.
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