Toward the attached end of the limb, origin of the structure, or mid-line of the body
upper region (neck)=7 cervical vertebrae. Smallest and most delicate
mid region- 12 thoracic vertebrae. Each attached to a rib *Thorax=thoracic
lower region= L for Lumbar vertebrae. Are the largest and heaviest. 5 lumbar, 5 fused sacrum and 4 fused coccyx
shoulders. clavicle and scapula
hips. ilium, ischium, pubis-- known collectively as the os coxae
Toward the mid-line of the body.
side to side movements. Think of a jumping jack. That is movement along the frontal plane. So the plane cuts through your body across your belly/back.
Front (anterior) to back (posterior) movements. Divides the body or any of its parts into right and left sections... imagine a piece of paper cutting you into two symmetrical halves.
where bones come together (joints)
toward the back
away from the brain
Divides the body or any of it's parts into superior and inferior sections.
Aside from distributing oxygen to cells, list the major functions of the cardiovascular system
1.Carries CO2 and metabolic waste from the cells
2.Maintains acid base balance
3.Helps regulate body temperature
PULMONARY ARTERY & LEFT VENTRICLE
Pulmonary Artery = pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs
Left Ventricle = pumps oxygenated blood out of the heart to the body
away from the point of attachment
Process of oxygen delivery to the capillaries in the lungs.
Difference in Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems.
CNS: Completely encased in bone; Brain/Spinal cord.
PNS: Connected to the extremities.
difference between axial and appendicular skeleton
axial: skull, hyoid, auditory ossicles* not part of either of these skeletons,, vertebral column and thorax (sternum and ribs)
b. appendicular: pectoral girdles, pelvic girdle, upper limbs and lower limbs
Difference in formed elements and plasma.
Formed elements: are living, such as red blood cells. Plasma: is composed of nonliving water and dissolved solutes.
Difference in skeletal muscles and both cardiac and visceral muscles.
Skeletal: contracts voluntarily
Cardiac/Visceral: contracts involuntarily.
Difference in arteries and veins.
Arteries: carry blood away from the heart.
Veins: Cary blood to the heart.
Characteristics of the Synovial Joint
Have a space, or joint, between the bones that form them; a variety of movements can occur. Classified as diarthrosis.
Characteristics of a Cartilaginous joint.
Have no joint cavity and are held together by cartilage; little or no motion occurs.
Characteristics of a fibrous joint.
Have no joint cavity and are held together by fibrous tissue; very little movement occurs.
Possible movements of the thumb joints.
Saddle: flexion and extension; abduction and adduction; circumduction; opposition
Possible movements of the hip joint.
Ball and socket: Flexion and extension; abduction and adduction; circumduction; internal and external rotation.
Possible movements of the knee joint.
Modified hinge: flexion and extension; internal and external rotations.
Possible movements of the elbow joint.
Hinge: Flexion and extension.
Possible movement of the hand joints.
Condyloid: Flexion and extension; abduction and adduction; curcumduction.
Explain what tendons are and what they do.
Connective tissue: transmit force from muscle to bone, thereby producing motion; provide 10% of the resistance during movement.
Explain what Ligaments are and what they do.
Connective tissue: Support joints by attaching bone to bone; provide 47% of resistance during movement.
Explain what Fasciae is and that it does.
Connective tissue:Provide framework that ensures proper alignment of muscle fibers, blood vessels, and nerves; enable safe&effective transmission of force throughout entire muscle; provide necessary lubricated surface between muscle fibers to allow shape change. 41% of resistance during movement.
How does AGE affect flexibility?
Decrease in normal muscle function, including strength, endurance, flexibility, and agility.
How does SEX affect flexibility?
Females are more flexible than males, due to anatomical and physiological differences. (Pelvis/elbow joint)
How does joint structure and past injuries affect flexibility?
Injury to bones may cause joints to lose it's ability to fully extend. Scar tissue from surgeries is inelastic thereby limiting movement.
How does tissue temperature affect flexibility?
Intramuscular temp should be increase prior to stretching or dynamic movement.
How does Circadian variations affect flexibility?
Stiffness has been associated with specific times of day, often the early morning hours.
Superficial and deep muscles that act at the scapulothoracic articulation.
Superficial musculature of the superior and inferior shoulder joint, prime movers for should abduction and adduction.
Superficial musculature of the anterior chest, shoulder, and arm.
Muscles of the abdominal wall
1.External abdominal oblique
2.Internal abdominal oblique
Anterior musculature of the hip and knee, prime movers for hip flexion and knee extension.
2.5th lumbar vertebra
4.Anterior superior iliac spine
5.Tensor fasciae latae
10.Tendon of quadriceps femoris
12.12th Thoracic vertebra
Medial muscles of the hip responsible for adduction.
Posterior musculature of the hip and knee, movers for hip extension and knee flexion.
3.Medial head (gastrocnemius)
8.Long head (biceps femoris)
9.Short head (biceps femoris)
10.Lateral head (gastrocnemius)
Posterior tibial compartment muscles primarily responsible for plantarflexion of the ankle.
Dangers of working past the "burning" feeling from muscles that are heavily exercised or fatigued.
The "burning" feeling is a feedback mechanism that warns you of possible injury if the current activity level isn't reduced.
Primary muscles used during leg extension at the knee.
Muscles used during adduction at the shoulder.
Muscles used during lateral flexion at the trunk.
External and internal obliques
Muscles used during plantarflexion at the ankle.
Muscles used during flexion at the elbow.
flexor carpi radialis
flexor carpi ulnaris
Muscles used during adduction of the scapula.
Blood vessels that carry blood rich in O2 from the lungs back to the heart.
Muscle that is most important for respiration in humans.
Explain Wolff's law
Bones increase density in response to the stress applied through weight bearing exercise.
Golgi Tendon Organs can affect static stretch by causing_____?
Relaxation of the muscle(s) being stretched through autogenic inhibition.
What organ is primarily responsible for digestion and absorption of nutrients?
The forward-backward movements of the arms and legs during walking occur in which plane?
Which muscle fiber is MOST highly adaptable to different training stimuli, making it able to increase oxidative capacities or increase force production and speed?
During Dynamic and static stretching, what soft tissues contributes the least to total resistance encountered by the joint?
Which muscles are prime movers for the shoulder joint adduction performed during a wide-grip pull-up?
Pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi
How does the pancreas help regulate blood glucose levels?
It secretes glucagon to increase blood glucose levels and insulin to increase glucose uptake by the cells.
synarthroidal= immoveable joints
characteristic of one type of cartilaginous join is a symphysis. This is the fibrocartilaginous pad or disk that separates two bones. Example: junction of two pubic bones (pubic symphysis) and junctions between the bodies of adjacent vertebrae
Axis of rotation
an imaginary line that forms a right angle to the plane of movement about which a joint rotates.
these are "hinge" joints. Only able to move along one axis of rotation. examples: ankles and elbows
joints that allow axis along two planes that are perpendicular to each other. examples: foot, knee, hand and wrist.
permits movements in 3 axis of rotation. includes thumb, hip, shoulder.
4 groups of movement. What are they?
surfaces of two adjoining bones move back and forth upon each other.
Angular joint movement
increase or decrease in the angle between two adjoining bones. There are 4 defined:
Angular Joint Movement: Flexion
Movement in which the bones that comprise a joint, move toward each other along the sagittal plane, decreasing the angle between them. Example: bicep curl=elbow flexion
Angular Joint Movement: Extension
The opposite of flexion. Two bones that comprise a joint moving away from each other. Angle increases along the sagittal plane. Example: quad extension=knee extension
Angular joint movement: Abduction
When part of the body is moved away from the midline of the body. ex: lifting an arm or leg away from the side of the body. Example: good girl move or hip abduction
Angular Joint Movement: Adduction
Opposite of abduction. Move toward the midline of the body. Ex: good girl move or hip adduction. Occur in frontal plane.
Joint movement: circumduction
all 4 angular movements (flexion, extension abduction, adduction). example: swimming doing arm circles before race = circumduction of the shoulder joint.
Joint Movement: Rotation
motion of a bone around a central (longitudinal) axis
Movement of a bone to face inward. ex: breastroke kick is medial movement of the femur
lateral movement is so the bone faces outward/away from the body.
when a movement faces something posteriorly
movement of a bone to face anteriorly
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