The power of judicial review that allows courts to decide on questions that do not arise from actual legal cases; sometimes occurs even before legislation becomes law.
An ideology believing that private property and capitalism lead to inequality, but, like liberals, anarchists place high value on individual political freedom.
Regimes that limit the role of the public in decision making and often deny citizens basic rights and restrict their freedom.
Legislatures with two chambers.
The chief government ministers or officials in government, in charge of such policy areas as defense, agriculture etc.
States that are considered legitimate because of their identification with an important individual.
Organizations outside of the state that help people define and advance their own interests.
The state provides benefits to groups of its political supporters.
An ideology that places the emphasis on creating economic equality instead of individual political and economic freedoms
A type of one-party authoritarian regime, in which a Communist party controls most aspects of a country's political and economic system.
The study and comparison of politics across countries.
The power of allowing the high court to rule on constitutional issues only on the basis of disputes brought before it.
Support the status quo and view change as risky.
The highest judicial body that rules on the constitutionality of laws and other government actions, and, in most political systems, formally oversees the entire judicial structure.
When members of the public are brought into a beneficial relationship with the state and government
When citizens are forced to participate in state-sanctioned groups.
Regimes with rules that emphasize a large role for the public in governance and protect basic rights and freedoms
When central states hand power down to lower levels of government
The system that determines how votes are cast and counted
The specific attributes and society groups that make one group of people culturally different from others
The branch of government that carries out the laws and policies of a given state
States that experience a complete loss of legitimacy and power, and are overwhelmed by anarchy and violence
An ideology that is hostile to the idea of individual freedom and rejects the notion of equality
States whose power is divided between the central state and regional or local authorities (such as states, provinces, counties and cities.)
foreign direct investment
The purchase of assets in one country by a foreign firm
GDP per capita
A measure of affluence that divides Gross Domestic Product by total population
The most commonly used measure of economic inequality
The process of expanding and intensifying linkages among states, societies and economies
The leadership or elite that operates the state
The total market value of goods and services produced within a country over a period of one year
head of government
The individual who deals with everyday tasks of running the states, such as formulating and executing policy
head of state
The individual who symbolizes and represents the people, both nationally and internationally, embodying and articulating the goals of the regime
Extremely high levels of inflation
Authoritarian regime that retains the basic structures of democracy but does not protect basic civil liberties
A situation of sustained rising prices
Intergovernmental organizations (IGO)
Groups created by states to serve particular policy ends
The mechanism by which the court can review laws and policies and overturn those that are seen as violations of the constitution
The branch of a country's central administration that is concerned with dispensing justic
The relationship between legislatures and the executive
The branch of government that is formally charged with making laws
The extent to which the state's authority is regarded as right and proper
promote evolutionary change within the system
Ideology that places a high priority on individual political and economic freedoms, favoring them over any attempts to create economic equality
The legislative house that usually represents the population at large
the interaction between the forces of supply and demand that allocate goods and resources
Authoritarian regime in which the institution of the military dominates politics
mixed electoral system
Electoral system that combines single-member districts and proportional representation
multimember districts (MMD)
When more than one legislative seat is contested in each electoral district
multinational corporations (MNC)
firms that produce, distribute and market in more than one country
The extent to which citizens of a country are bound together by a common set of political aspirations
Authoritarian regime that is dominate by a strong political party that is able to create a broad membership as a source of political control
The nature of and competition among political parties
Authoritarian regime that is based on the power of a single strong leader who usually relies on charismatic or traditional authority to maintain power
The state-sponsored exaltation of an authoritarian leader
Views regarding the status quo in any society, specifically the desired pace and methods of political change
patterns of basic norms about politics
The study of how politics and economics are related
Sets of political value regarding fundamental goals or politics
The norms and rules regarding individual freedom and collective equality, the locus of power, and the use of that power
Legislative-executive systems that features a directly elected president with most executive powers
Legislative-executive system that features a head of government (prime minister) elected from within the legislature
the idea of ownership of goods and services
proportional representation (PR)
An electoral system where the percentage of votes a party receives in a district determines how many of that districts' seats the party will gain
Goods and services that benefit all of society and that are not easily provided by the market
purchasing power parity (PPP)
A mechanism that attempts to estimate the real buying power of income in each country, using United States prices as a benchmark
Support rapid, extensive, and often revolutionary change
Legitimacy based on a system of laws and procedures that become highly institutionalized
Promote rapid change to restore political, social and economic institutions that once existed
A process where the government allows its supporters to occupy positions of power in order to monopolize state benefits
Legislative-executive system that features a prime minister approved by the legislature and a directly elected president
single-member district (SMD)
The electoral system in which only one representative for each constituency and the candidate with the largest number of votes- and not necessarily a majority- wins the seat
An ideology that places considerable value on equality, but also attempts to protect some individual freedoms
State provision of public benefits, such as education, healthcare and transportation
organizations that maintain a monopoly of violence over a territory
States that perform the basic tasks of defending their borders from outside attacks and defending their authority from internal non-state rivals
the right to vote
Authoritarian regime that has leaders who claim to rule on behalf of God
Authoritarian regimes that feature a strong, official ideology that seeks to transform fundamental aspects of the state, society and economy using a wide array of organizations and the application of forces
when the state is obeyed because it has a long tradition of being obeyed
legislatures with a single chamber
States that concentrate most political power in the national capital, allocating very little decision-making power to regions or localities
The legislative house that often represents geographic subunits
States the have trouble carrying out the basic tasks of defending themselves against external and internal rivals, and ofter suffer from endemic violence, poor infrastructure, weak rule of law, and an inability to collect taxes
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