# Chapter 1

**Created:**2014-05-30

**Last Modified:**2014-06-01

#### Related Textbooks:

Organic Chemistry (with CengageNOW 2-Semester Printed Access Card)**Constitutional Isomers**

- Same Molecular Formula
from each other in the way they are__DIFFER____CONNECTED__

**Constitutional Isomers**

__DIFFERENT__

- Physical Properties
- Names

- Two atoms
a pair of electrons__SHARING__ **E.N.**__difference__=than__LESS__**0.5**

- Electrons in the
shell**outermost** - Each atom's
determines number of e'__group #__

**(C, N, O, F)**can

__have more than__

**NOT****bonds**

__FOUR__**1**pair of

**Non-bonding Electrons**

**Formal Charge**

**exhibit appropriate number of**

__doesn't__

__valence____electrons__**Formal Charge**

**1.)**Determine

__appropriate____of__

**number****for an atom**

__valence e-__**2.)**Determine whether the atom

__the__

**exhibits**

**appropriate**__of__

**number**

__electrons__**indicates**

__Group number__**(**

__Negative__**-**)

- Atoms has excess amount of electrons
e- than atom's**MORE**allows**group #**

**(**

__Positive__**+**)

- Atoms is
electrons__MISSING__ electrons atom's__LESS__**group #**

**E.N.**difference =**0.5-1.7**- Electrons are
__NOT____shared____EQUALLY__

**E.N.**__difference__**= < 1.7**- Electrons
__NOT__at all__shared__

**Induction**

**that occurs when a bond is shared by two atoms of**

*Withdrawal of electron density*

__DIFFERING__**.**

__E.N__**their orbitals results in a dipole moment**

__WITHIN__- C--Br
- C--I

__Covalent Bonds__- C--Br
- C--I

__that is__

**wavelike behavior of an electron***the*

**in**

**electric**__of the__

**field**

**proton**

**ENERGY****for the electron**

__LEVEL__**Wave Function**

__Notation__

- Psi (Greek)

**indicates that atoms posse distinct**

__Wave function__

__energy____making the__

**levels**

__energy__

__of__

__electrons__**ψ**

^{2}(Psi Squared)

^{ }

___________of*finding*the________in*that*____________

- Indicates the
__probability__ofthe*finding*in**electron***that*__location__

**ψ**(Psi Squared)

^{2}- Generating an
**___**of an**______****_______.**

__of an__

**image**

__atomic orbital__**Electron Density**

__Define__)

**Atomic Orbital**

__Appreciation__)

**AO**

**Atomic Orbital**

__Define__)

- A 3-D plot of ψ
^{2 }of a wave function. of__Region__that can__space__*accommodate*__electron__**density**

**Atomic Orbital**

__Examples__)

*s**p**d**f*

**Covalent Bonds**

__Nonpolar__Constructive Interference

**Molecular Orbital**

__Appreciation__)

**of partial charge)**

__Amount__**x**

**the**

__Distance__

__partial__**are**

__charges__**)**

__separated__^{-18}esu • cm

__Appreciation__)

__esu__^{-10}

**Dipole Moment**

__notation-formula__)

**Charge**

__Notation-Formula__)

*e*

__Dipole moment__

**H**atoms that are capable of forming H-bonds are called

**the surface area of a molecule, the more temporary dipole interactions are possible**

__GREATER__**More massive**compounds have

**___**boiling points

of electron pairs (bonding and nonbonding) that are__Number__from each other__repelling__- Determines geometry

*alence*

__V__**hell**

__s__*lectron*

__e__**air**

*p***epulsion**

*r**sp*

^{3}Hybridize

**___**

**bond angles**

__Tetrahedral__^{o}

**are for sp**

__geometries__^{3}

- Tetrahedral
- Trigonal Pyramidal
- Bent

__geometries__are for sp

^{2}

- Trigonal Planar
- Bent

__Steric Number__:

**4**

__Number of Lone pairs__:

**0**

__Hybridization__:

**sp**

^{3}__Geometry__:

**Tetrahedral**

__Steric Number__:

**4**

__Number of Lone pairs__:

**1**

__Hybridization__:

**sp**

^{3}__Geometry__:

**Trigonal Pyramidal**

__Steric Number__:

**4**

__Number of Lone pairs__:

**2**

__Hybridization__:

**sp**

^{3}__Geometry__:

**Bent**

__Steric Number__:

**3**

__Number of Lone pairs__:

**1**

__Hybridization__:

**sp**

^{3}__Geometry__:

**Bent**

**degenerate**

**orbital****,**

__first__*BEFORE*electrons are

**paired***up*

- Lowest energy orbital filled first
- Rule that determines the order in which orbitals are filled by electrons

**of**

__maximum__

__two__**with**

__electrons__

__opposite__

**spin**COMPLETE OCTETS INCREASE _____.

Trigonal

Pyramidal

- # of Lone Pair(s)
- Steric #
- Hybridization

**Trigonal**

**Planar**

- # of Lone Pair(s)
- Steric #
- Hybridization

**Linear**

- # of Lone Pairs
- Steric #
- Hybridization

**Bent**

- # of Lone Pairs
- Steric #
- Hybridization

**Lone Pairs**

__2__

**sp**^{3}- Arrangement of e
^{- }pairs - Molecular Geometry

__Lone Pairs__

**0***sp*

^{3}- Arrangement of e
^{-}pairs - Molecular Geometry

__Lone Pair__

**1***sp*

^{3}- Arrangement of e
^{-}pairs:________ - Molecular Geometry:____________

__Lone Pair__

**1***sp*

^{2}- Arrangement of e
^{-}pairs:________ - Molecular Geometry:____________

__Lone Pairs__

**0***sp*

^{2}- Arrangement of e
^{-}pairs:________ - Molecular Geometry:____________

__Lone Pairs__

**0***sp*

- Arrangement of e
^{-}pairs:________ - Molecular Geometry:____________

__Lone Pairs__

**0***sp*

^{2}- Arrangement of e
^{-}pairs:__Linear__ - Molecular Geometry:
**Linear**

→Hydrogen Bonding

→Increase in molecular weight

→Linear Structures

→Permanent Dipole moments#### Words From Our Students

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