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Peralta Community College
Peralta Community College
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A characteristic of the individual being measured or observed.
measure that describes an aspect of a population.
measure that describes an aspect of a sample.
Nominal (name) level
Data that consist of names, labels, or categories.
Rank order for ordinal level variables.
Height can be ranked by students standing tallest to shortest, but we don't know the difference in height between each student.
The difference between values can be measured.
The difference between a temperature of 100 degrees and 90 degrees is the same difference as between 90 degrees and 80 degrees.
variable, has all the properties of an interval variable, and also has a clear definition of 0.0
Zero equals nothing or none
Population from which the sample is drawn.
results from omitting population members from the sample
The difference between measurements from a sample and
corresponding measurements from the respective population.
The result of poor sample design, sloppy data collection, faulty measuring instruments, bias in questionnaires, and so on.
Procedures used to summarize, organize and simplify data.
Methods of using information from a sample to draw conclusions regarding a population.
Simple Random Sample
A sample sin which every element in the population has an equal chance of being chosen.
Random Number Table
Table containing lists of numbers that are ordered on the basis of chance.
A numerical facsimile or representation of a real-world
Sampling with replacement
Once a number is selected for the sample it is counted then replaced.
Groups or classes inside a population that share a common characteristic are called strata.
In the population of all undergraduate college students, some strata might be freshmen, sophomores, juniors, or seniors.
Involves first selecting a fixed starting point in the larger population, and then
Obtaining subsequent observations by using a constant interval between samples taken
When "natural" groupings are evident in a statistical population
The total population is divided into these groups (or clusters) a sample of the groups is selected
Often used in marketing research
A more complicated form of cluster sampling in which larger clusters are further subdivided into smaller, more targeted groupings for the purposes of surveying.
Use a sample that happens to be convenient to select
Measurements or observations from the entire population.
Measurements or observations from part of the population
A numerical facsimile of real-world phenomena
Measures a response variable without trying to influence it.
A treatment is deliberately imposed on one set individuals which is different than the treatment of another set of individuals and the differences are measured.
Occurs when a subject receives no treatment but (incorrectly) believes he or she is in fact receiving treatment and responds
The group that receives the prescribed treatment.
Completely randomized experiment
Where a random process is used to assign each individual to one of the treatments.
A group of individuals sharing some common features that might
affect the treatment.
Randomized block experiment
Individuals are first sorted into blocks, and
Then a random process is used to assign each individual in the block to one of the treatments.
This group receives a dummy treatment, enabling the researchers to control for the placebo effect.
Used to assign individuals to the two treatment groups.
This helps prevent bias in selecting members for each group.
This means that neither the individuals in the study nor the observers know which subjects are receiving the treatment.
Scale where possible responses span from strongly disagree to strongly agree.
Occurs when an individual chosen for the sample can't be contacted or does not cooperate.
The question may be worded in such a way as to elicit a specific response.
The order of questions might lead to biased responses.
Likert scale forces responses that don't reflect respondent's feelings.
Words such as “often,” “seldom,” and “occasionally” which mean different things to different people.
Individuals with strong feelings about a subject are more likely than others to respond.
Such a study is interesting but not reflective of the population.
A variable for which no data have been collected but that nevertheless has influence on other variables in the study.
Its a variable that has an unintentional effect on the dependent variable.
The event studied and expected to change with the introduction of the independent variable.
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