primarily the study of structure and the relationships among structures.
the careful cutting apart of body structures to study their relationships.
deals with functions of body parts-that is, how they work.
are groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together to perform a particular function.
structures that are composed of two or more different types of tissues; they have specific functions and usually have recognizable shapes.
consists of related organs with a common function.
5. Lymphatic and Immunity
Distinguishing one disease from another or determining the nature of a disease from signs and symptoms by inspection, palpation, lab tests, etc.
refers to an illness characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms.
a subjective change in body function not apparent to an observer, such as pain or nausea, that indicates the presence of a disease of disorder of the body.
any objective evidence of disease that can be observed or measured, such as lesion, swelling, or fever.
Levels of Organization
1. Chemical Level
2. Cellular Level
3. Tissue Level
4. Organ Level
5. System Level
6. Organismal Level
-Skin, and structures associated with it, such as hair, fingernails, and toenails, sweat glands, and oil glands.
-Protects the body; helps regulate body temp; eliminates some wastes; helps makes vitamin D; and detects sensations such as touch, pain, warmth, and cold.
-Bones and joints of the body and their associated cartilages.
-Supports and protects the body; provides a surface area for muscle attachments; aids body in moving; houses cells that produce blood cells; stores lipids and minerals.
-Specifically refers to skeletal muscle tissue, which is muscle usually attached to bones.
-Participates in bringing about body movements, such as walking, maintains posture, and produces heat.
-Blood, heart, and blood vessels.
-Heart pumps blood through blood vessels; blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and carbon dioxide and wasters away from cells and helps regulate acid base balance, temp, and water content of body fluids.
Lymphatic System and Immunity
-Lymphatic fluid, lymphatic vessels, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and tonsils; cells that carry out immune responses.
-Returns proteins and fluid to blood; carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood; contains sites of maturation...
-Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and special sense organs, such as the eyes and ears.
-Generates action potentials to regulate body activities; detects changes in the body's internal and external environments, interprets the changes, and responds by causing muscular contractions or glandular secretions.
-Lungs, pharynx(throat), larynx(voice box), bronchial tubes leading into and out of the lungs.
-Transfers oxygen from inhaled air to blood and carbon dioxide from blood to exhaled air; helps regulate acid base balance of body fluids.
-Hormone producing glands and hormone producing cells.
-Regulates body activities by releasing hormones, which are chemical messengers transported in blood from an endocrine gland or tissue to a target organ.
1. Pineal gland
3. Pituitary gland
4. Parathyroid gland
6. Thyroid gland
7. Parathyroid gland
8. Adrenal gland
-Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra.
-Produces, stores, and eliminates urine; eliminates wastes and regulates volume and chemical composition of blood, helps maintain the acid-base balance of body fluids; maintains body's mineral balance; helps regulate production of red blood cels.
-Gonads and associated organs.
-Gonads produce gametes that unite to form a new organism; gonads also release hormones that regulate reproduction and other body processes; associated organs transport and store gametes; mammary glands produce milk.
the standard position of reference for the description of anatomical structures. The subject stands erect facing the observer, with the head level and the eyes facing directly forward. Feet flat and palms facing outward.
includes thoracic, abdominal, pelvic.
back of elbow
front of elbow
or volar, palm.
or phalangeal, fingers.
or digital, toes.
anterior surface of knee.
base of skull
cubital, back of elbow.
region between anus and external genitals.
hollow behind knee
a vertical plane that divides the body or organ into right and left sides.
when the sagittal plane does not pass through the midline but instead divides the body into unequal right and left sides.
when a plane passes through the midline of the body and divides it into equal right and left sides.
divides the body or an organ into front and back portions.
divides the body or an organ into upper and lower portions.
passes through the body or organ at an oblique angle.
above or higher in position; toward the head. The heart is superior to the liver.
Relating to the skill or head; toward the head. The stomach is more cranial than the urinary bladder.
Below or lower in position; toward the feet. The stomach is inferior to the lungs.
Relating to the nose and mouth region; toward the face. the frontal lobe of the brain is rostral to the occipital lobe.
Relating to the tail; at or near the tail or posterior part of the body. The lumbar vertebrae are caudal to the cervical.
Nearer to or at the front of the body. The sternum is anterior to the heart.
Nearer to or at the back of the body. The esophagus is posterior to the trachea.
Relating to the belly side of the body; toward the belly. The intestines are ventral to the vertebral column.
Relating to the back side of the body; toward the back. The kidneys are dorsal to the stomach.
Nearer to the midline. The ulna is medial to the radius.
Farther from the midline. The lungs are lateral to the heart.
Between two structures. The transverse colon is intermediate to the ascending colon and descending colon.
On the same side of the body's midline as another structure. The gallbladder and ascending colon are ipsilateral.
On the opposite side of the body's midline as another structure. The ascending and descending colons are contralateral.
Nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk; nearer to the origination of a structure.
Toward o on the surface of the body. The ribs are superficial to the lungs.
Away from the surface of the body. The ribs are deep to the skin of the chest and back.
Toward the outside of a structure. The visceral pleura is on the external surface of the lungs.
Toward the inside of a structure. The mucosa forms the internal lining of the stomach.
Formed by cranial bones and contains brain.
Formed by vertebral column and contains spinal cord and the beginnings of spinal nerves.
Chest cavity; contains pleural and pericardial cavities and mediastinum.
Each surrounds a lung; the serous membrane of each pleural cavity is the pleura.
Central portion of thoracic cavity between the lungs; extends from sternum to vertebral column and from first rib to diaphragm; contains heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and several large blood vessels.
Surrounds the heart; the serous membrane of the pericardial cavity is the pericardium.
Subdivided into abdominal and pelvic cavities.
Contains stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and most of the large intestine; the serous membrane of the abdominal cavity is the peritoneum.
Contains urinary bladder, portions of large intestine, and internal organs of reproduction.
Four Quadrants of the Abdominopelvic Cavity
RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ
the basic living structural and functional units of the body. Cells perform chemical reactions to create life processes. Compartmentalization.
Three Parts of a Cell
1. Plasma membrane (barrier between outside and inside of the cell)
2. Cytoplasm (fluid that fills the cell)
3. Nucleus (where genetic info is stored, control center)
Fluid Mosaic Model
the arrangement of molecules within the membrane resembles a sea of lipids containing many types of proteins.
Structure of a Membrane
lipid bilayer, integral proteins, transmembrane proteins, peripheral proteins.