when smaller components interact, they create new complex functions called...
no simple definition of life
living and nonliving organisms share some characteristics, what are they...
growth. metabolism. movement. reproduction. response to external environment
all living organisms require...
energy. maintain homeostasis. reproduce.
populations of living organisms...
can evolve, change in average physical characteristics over time
initially, scientists make an _________ that leads them to a question they want to answer
the question a scientist wants to answer...
what two things must the hypothesis be?
testable and falsifiable
logical process that argues from specific instances to a general conclusion
making predictions about the outcome of a test, sometimes "if...then" statements
hypothesis testing logic
rejected. supported (not proven). never 100% sure. alternative hypothesis. always keep testing.
contrived situations designed to test specific hypotheses
a scientist can manipulate the environment with these...something that is changeable in an experiment.
supporting evidence and is used to accept or reject the hypothesis
viruses need to enter a _____ to reproduce
it conforms to a well accepted scientific principle, scientists believe that colds are caused by viruses, which are microorganisms.
is an explanation of a set of related observations based on well supported hypotheses from several different, independent lines of research
the theory of evolution
all organisms derive from a single common ancestor and have changed and diverged through time, fundamental theory of biology,
how scientists gain evidence to objectively support a hypothesis, or fail to support
to be sure that the experiment is unbiased
the factor that is being tested
the factor that is affected by the independent variable-this is what is measured
the factors that are held constant for both groups in the experiment
the subject or group that is similar in every way to the experimental subject or group except that the control does not get the experimental treatment. act as baseline measurements. compare to experimental group
the "pill" that only acts as the treatment. not the actual treatment. given to the control group.
select groups at random
ensures that each groups is relatively balanced in characteristics
good controls=strong inference
a strong statement about the truth of a given hypothesis possible when an experimental protocol greatly minimizes the number of alternative hypotheses that can explain a result
human influence from the researchers or their subjects may unfairly influence...
a researcher making consistent errors in the measuring and evaluation of results
avoids this by not letting the subjects know what experience is being predicted
both groups are unaware of either the hypothesis or whether the subjects are in the experimental group or control group
a relationship in the data. correlation does not mean causation
specialized branch of math, to determine significance of results
small groups that are tested
used to extend the results from a sample to the entire population
the effect of chance on experimental results is...
low probability that experimental groups differ simply by chance. Stats can't tell if an experiment was valid, only validate the data
researchers can submit a paper to a professional journal, paper is reviewed, it is rejected or returned for changes
how a peer review paper is submitted
bring published information to the public: newspaper and magazines, television and radio, the internet
based on experience not experimental data
for a planet to support life, an abundant amount of this liquid would have to be available
what is being
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