CHAPTER 1 VOCABULARY Government- the formal vehicle through which the policies are made and affairs of state are conducted Citizen- member of the political community to whom certain rights and obligations are attached Politics- the study of who gets what, when, and how?or how policy decisions are made Monarchy- a form of government in which power is vested in hereditary kings and queens who govern the interests of all Totalitarianism- a form of government in which power resides in a leader who rules according to self-interest and without regard for individual rights and liberties Oligarchy- a form of government in which the right to participate is conditioned on the possession of wealth, social status, military position, or achievement Democracy- a system of government that gives power to the people, whether directly or through elected representative Mayflower Compact- document written by the Pilgrims while at sea enumerating the scope of their government and its expectations of citizens Social contract- an agreement between the people and their government signifying their consent to be governed Social contract theory- the belief that people are free and equal by natural right, and that this in turn requires that all people give their consent to be governed; espoused by John Locke and influential in the writing of the Declaration of Independence ***Direct democracy- a system of government in which members of the polity meet to discuss all policy decisions and then agree to abide my majority rule ***Indirect (representative) democracy- a system of government that gives citizens the opportunity to vote for representatives who will work on their behalf Republic- a government rooted in the consent of the governed; a representative or indirect democracy ***Political culture- commonly shared attitudes, beliefs, and core values about how government should operate Personal liberty- a key characteristic of U.S. democracy. Initially meaning freedom from governmental interference, today it includes demands for freedom to engage in a variety of practices without governmental interference or discrimination Political equality?the principle that all citizens are equal in the political process, as implied by the phrase ?one person, one vote? Popular consent- the principle that governments must draw their powers from the consent of the governed Majority rule- the central premise of direct democracy in which only policies that collectively garner the support of a majority of voters will be made into law Popular sovereignty- the notion that the ultimate authority in society rests with the people Natural law- a doctrine that society should be governed by certain ethical principles that are a part of nature and, as such, can be understood by reason Civil society- society created when citizens are allowed to organize and express their views publicly as they engage in an open debate about public policy ***Political ideology- the coherent set of values and beliefs about the purpose and scope of government held by groups and individuals Libertarian- one who favors free market economy and no governmental interference in personal liberties Conservative- one who believes that a government is best that governs least and that big government can only infringe on individual, personal, and economic rights Social conservative- one who believes that traditional moral teachings should be supported and furthered by the government Liberal- one who favors governmental involvement in the economy and in the provision of social services and who takes an activist role in protecting the rights of women, the elderly, minorities, and the environment American dream- an American ideal of a happy, successful life, which often includes wealth, a house, a better life for one?s children, and for some, the ability to grow up and be president ***According to O?Connor and Sabato, what are the functions expected from a governmental system? establishing justice- allow individuals to abide by a common set of principles, or the rule of law insuring domestic tranquility- contain threats and maintain order providing for the common defense- defending its citizens promoting the general welfare- government involvement to promote the welfare of its citizens securing the blessings of liberty- provide and protect the liberties and freedoms of its citizens Briefly elaborate on the thoughts of Isaac Newton, Thomas Hobbes, and John Locke. (these are philosophical origins of American government) Newton= advocated human reason, science, and religious toleration over ideas of monarchy sought alternatives to monarchies and new forms of governance Protestants and Pilgrims fleeing religious persecution and settling in America and establishing its own government through the Mayflower Compact advocated the social contract, an agreement between people and government signifying their consent of being governed Hobbes= individuals were free and equal by natural right and must give their consent for being governed argued human nature was naturally in a state of war and that life was ?solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short? governments were necessary to restrain such tendencies and states of nature need for rules to maintain order and need to give up certain rights for the government, which had to intrude in people?s life and liberties to control society and safeguard properties argued for a single ruler to guarantee the people?s rights ***regarding social contract- way out of this desperate state is to make a social contract and establish the state to keep peace and order. Because of his view of how nasty life is without the state, Hobbes subscribed to a very authoritarian version of the social contract. argued for single leaders Locke= human nature was rational and all were born equal with natural rights opposed authoritarianism, centralized power, and monarchial rule ***regarding social contract- advocated social contract theory, which held governments exist based on consent of the governed if governments acted improperly, they lost the consent to govern role of governments: preserve life, liberty, property, and justice revolution was a right and obligation of man government existed for good of subjects and not found for benefit of governing America?s Political culture emphasizes?(also philosophical origins of American government) political culture- shared attributes, beliefs, and values of how government should operate, emphasizes: personal liberty equality popular consent majority rule popular sovereignty civil society individualism religious faith and freedom inalienable rights the consent of the governed the right of revolution What were some factors which influenced the calls for independence by colonists? Following the French and Indian War, various laws and enactments were placed on colonies Proclamation 1763- prohibited colonists from moving westward and establishing settlements Sugar Act 1764- placed taxes on sugar, wine, coffee, and other products commonly exported Stamp Act 1765- required colonies to buy special stamped watermarked paper for all paper items Quartering Act 1765- required colonies to furnish barracks and provide living quarter for British troops Townshend Acts 1767- imposed duties on all kinds of imports, including tea Tea Act- granted a monopoly to the East India Company to sell tea imported from Britain What are the basic principles of the Constitution? to establish a stronger central government ***checks and balances power of each branch is checked and balanced by other two branches to minimize power in any one branch for every power granted to one branch, an equal control is established in others ***separation of powers feared putting too much power in hands of one individual/branch resulted in separation of powers through three distinct branches, each separately staffed with constitutional equality and independence to prevent elite groups from ruling represent minority rights ***federalism system dividing powers between strong national government and individual states with national power being supreme national government derived power from citizens, not states, as the national government had done under the Articles of Confederation rule of law republican government
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