Chapter 10: Intelligence
Last Modified: 2011-05-31
A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person’s total score.
Proposed that engaging in intellectual tasks requires a combination of “g” and/or other specific factors.
Savant syndrome does confirm Garner’s view. While these people have some limited abilities, they also have exceptional specific skills. This agrees with Garner that there are multiple intelligences and not just one.
Agreed with Gardner that there are multiple but proposed that there are three intelligences instead of eight.
1)Analytical (academic problem-solving) intelligence is assessed by intelligence tests, which present well-defined problems, have a single right answer. 2) Creative intelligence is demonstrated in reacting adaptively to novel situations and generating novel ideas. 3) Practical intelligence is required for everyday tasks, which may be ill-defined, with multiple solutions.
The know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully.
Gray matter concentration in people is higher with high intelligence
Some geniuses had larger heads and brains but others had smaller brains and some criminals had large brains- Brain larger in thinking areas than other people and other areas smaller
correlation between intelligence score and the speed of taking in perceptual information tends to be about +.3 to +.5
1. Expertise, a well-developed base of knowledge
2. Imaginative thinking skills provide the ability to see things in novel ways.
3. A venturesome personality seeks new experiences.
4. Intrinsic motivation is being driven more by interest, satisfaction, and challenge than by external pressures.
Translated, revised, and published Binet’s test--This revision quickly became the world’s foremost intelligence test. Terman’s revised test became known as the Stanford-Binet. The idea of IQ etc. was stemmed from this test.
Test was more sensitive to brain impairment because it “tapped” into nonverbal reasoning. The WAIS assessed both verbal and nonverbal (performance) components of intelligence. Either test is designed to measure one’s verbal abilities or performance abilities. Wechsler’s tests resemble aptitude tests.
The extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, or on retesting.
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.
content validity- the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest
predictive validity- the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict.
No—casual observations and intelligence tests before the age of 3 only modestly predict children’s future aptitudes- cannot tell.
Mental retardation (intellectual disability) a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound.
Genius- high extreme- IQ over 135
Can argue either way but while people grow out of their nurtured environment, nature tends to win over
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