Most information systems rely on computers and communications networks to store, process, and transmit information with far more efficiency than would be possible with manual systems.
An information system must support the needs of people who engage in many different organizational activities.
A semi-structured problem is more routine than a structured problem.
A small business might require several information systems to be integrated into an enterprise information system to support a variety of business activities.
A batch system uses a commit or rollback strategy to ensure each transaction is processed correctly.
A DSS can be used to tackle diverse problems because it contains a good selection of decision support tools.
As illustrated in the accompanying figure, a neural network is a software tool containing an inference engine and a user interface that developers use to enter facts and rules for the knowledge base.
The accompanying figure represents the basic flow of information in an expert system and summarizes its capabilities.
The SDLC provides a general outline of how an information system evolves.
In the SDLC, the goal of the activities in the planning phase is to create a list of requirements for the new or revised information system.
MRP is an ongoing, iterative process that helps businesses rethink and radically redesign practices to improve performance.
In the accompanying figure, the Enroll student item represents an external entity.
In the accompanying figure, the Student item represents a data store.
Many projects fail because of constant, unmanaged demand for changes, a phenomenon often referred to as feature creep.
During the implementation phase of the SDLC, both new software and new hardware may be purchased to construct the new information system.
After unit and integration testing are completed, system testing is used to ensure that all hardware and software components work together correctly.
Direct conversion avoids some of the risk of parallel conversion because the old system remains in service while some or all of the new system is activated.
Acceptance testing is designed to verify that the new information system works as required.
The cutover phase of the SDLC involves the day-to-day operation of the system, making modifications to improve performance and correcting problems.
The maintenance phase of the SDLC is the least expensive part of the cycle.
A(n) ____ depicts the hierarchy of employees in a typical organization.
As a low-level manager at your company, you are responsible for activities that make the day-to-day operation of the business run smoothly, like ordering office supplies and creating work schedules. What type of planning are you responsible for?
Which of the following best describes the process referred to as operational planning?
Completing activities that make day-to-day systems run smoothly.
____ systems use a commit or rollback strategy to ensure that each transaction is processed correctly.
A(n) ____ report combines, groups, or totals data.
Ad hoc reports are sometimes referred to as ____ reports.
You are reviewing a cash-flow model of your business, which is designed to provide a numerical representation of a realistic situation. What type of tool are you using?
a decision model
A(n) ____ helps people make decisions by directly manipulating data, analyzing data from external sources, generating statistical projections, and creating data models of various scenarios.
A ____ is a numerical representation of a realistic situation, such as a cash-flow model of a business that shows how income adds to cash accounts and expenses deplete those accounts.
A DSS typically includes modeling tools to help managers create a numerical representation of a situation and explore "what-if" alternatives. Which of the following is an example of such a tool?
In an expert system, a(n) ____ engine analyzes the available data by following the rules in its knowledge base.
A system like the one shown in the accompanying figure is characterized by its ability to ____.
replicate the reasoning of a human expert
A system like the one shown in the accompanying figure is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT ____.
its ability to generate its own programs
In a JAD ____, users and analysts jointly identify problems and look for solutions.
In the planning phase of the SDLC, a(n) ____ is assigned to analyze and develop the information system.
____ is a method for analyzing the time needed to complete each project task and identifying the minimum amount of time needed to complete the total project.
Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)
The goal of the ____ of the SDLC is to produce a list of requirements for a new or revised information system.
In the accompanying figure, the ____ item represents a filing cabinet, disk, or tape that holds data.
In the ____ of the SDLC, the project team must decide how the new system will fulfill the requirements specified in the System Requirements Report.
A ____ processing model is one in which data is processed on a centrally located computer.
Which of the following would be a reason an organization would choose to use a programming language to create an information system from scratch?
This approach can be used to make a solution tailored to system requirements.
Which of the following is TRUE with regard to turnkey systems?
They require time and expertise to evaluate.
____ might be chosen during the design phase of the SDLC because it requires little or no programming, and thus requires minimal development time.
A project team submits an RFQ to vendors when it knows all of the following EXCEPT ____.
price of the software needed
A(n) ____ is issued by a project team when it wants vendors to recommend hardware and software for the solution they have chosen.
Which of the following should be considered when reviewing a vendor’s RFP?
all of the above
In terms of software, ____ serve as a blueprint for the new system.
In the design phase of the SDLC, the project team ____.
all of the above
Many projects fail because of constant, unmanaged demand for changes, even before the system is implemented. This failure to constrain change is often referred to as ____.
____ is the process of modifying a commercial application to reflect the needs of a particular organization.
You are planning to migrate your business from its current information system to a new, more efficient information system. Your business has several branches, each of which has its own independent information processing system. What type of conversion would be appropriate in this situation?
Which quality of service (QoS) metric is defined as the number of errors occurring in a particular time interval for a particular function?
Which quality of service (QoS) metric is defined as the amount of time a system is not available for processing?
A ____ metric is a technique for measuring a specific characteristic by monitoring system performance and analyzing responses to user satisfaction surveys.
Computer systems are ____ when they can be counted on to function correctly.
Systems exhibit ____ when they are easily upgraded or repaired.
Many organizations establish a ____ to handle end-user problems.
Multi-level authentication is an example of a security measure in the ____ category.
Antivirus software is an example of a security measure in the ____ category.
To avoid downtime, one of the most basic requirements for a data center is a ____.
An enterprise-wide disaster recovery plan should do all of the following EXCEPT ____.
temporarily suspend critical business operations
In the corporate world, a ____ symbolizes a company, its products, or services. This typically includes a name, trademark, and logo.
What is the best way to communicate the new organizational structure to employees in your organization?
Create an organizational chart and send it to the employees.
Amanda Roberts is now in charge of planning the organization’s long-range goals for profitability, market share, and membership levels. She is now a(n) ____.
What is the first phase of the SDLC?
Cara and Bella want to avoid the risks of a direct conversion to a new information system because they have no backup for their current system. Which type of conversion would allow them to continue to use the old system during the conversion process?
Cara and Bella will know that the implementation phase is completed once the following occurs:
They’ve undergone acceptance testing.
The business needs a system to track employee hours, calculate deductions and taxes, generate paychecks, and produce data for year-end reports. Which type of system should Jane investigate to meet these needs?
transaction processing system
Management has asked Jane to find an information system that will help them solve semi-structured problems. Jane knows that such a system is called a(n) ____.
decision support system
Jane knows she must implement a step-by-step plan that describes the methods her business will use to secure data against disaster and the guidelines that will be used to recover lost data if a disaster occurs. She will have to create a(n) ____.
disaster recovery plan
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