refers to the internal and external forces that drive our thoughts, moods, and behaviors. comes from the word movere--"to move"
the motive from within that drives the organism to meet a need
a motive that stems from influences outside the organism, based on a force or consequence from the environment
proposes that organisms engage in certain behaviors because they lead to success in terms of natural selection. casts motivation as intrinsic and biological. examples: migration and mating
proposed by Freud, individuals can be completely unaware of the drives or reasons that are causing them to behave in certain ways.
behavior is motivated by the need to reduce internal tension caused by unmet biological needs. casts motivation as intrinsic. the unmet need drives behavior aimed at reducing the tension. drives are triggered by internal mechanisms bring the organism back to a state of homeostasis.