the information specified by a stimulus pattern that indicates how the stimulus can be used. An example would be seeing a chair as something to sit on or a flight of stairs as something to climb.
audiovisual mirror neuron
neuron that responds to actions that produce sounds. these neurons respond when a monkey performs a hand-action and also when it hears the sound associated with this action.
ecological approach to perception
this approach focuses on studying perception as it occurs in natural settings, particularly emphasizing the role of observer movement.
focus of expansion (FOE)
the point in the flow pattern caused by observer movement in which there is no expansion. according to JJgibson, it always remains centered on the observer's destination
gradient of flow
in an optic flow pattern, a gradient is created by movement of an observer through the environment. The "gradient" refers to the fact that the optic flow is rapid in the foreground and becomes slower as distance from the observer increases.
environmental properties that do not change as the observer moves relative to an object or scene.
linear optical trajectory (LOT) strategy
a strategy for catching a fly ball based on the idea that if the ballplayer runs so the ball appears to be following a straight-line path, the ball will always be directly above, so when the ball reaches the ground, the outfielder will be there to catch it.
neuron in the premotor area of the monkey's cortex that responds when the monkey grasps an object and also when the monkey observes someone else (another monkey or the experimenter) grasping the object.
neuron in the anterior intraparietal cortex (AIP) of the monkey that responds well when a monkey carries out a motor action like pushing a button but doesn't respond well when the monkey looks at the button.
a problem in carrying out actions relative to visual stimuli that occurs in some patients with parietal lobe damage. people reach for objects slowly and inaccurately and often also have trouble forming their hands to match the shape of an object they are trying to grasp.
the flow of stimuli in the environment that occurs when an observer moves relative to the environment. forward movement causes expansion, whereas backward movement causes contraction.
parietal reach region
a network of areas in the parietal cortex that contains neurons that are involved in reaching behavior.
generally, environmental information that is produced by actions of the observer. an example is optic flow, which occurs as a result of a person's movement and which, in turn, provides information that can be used to guide the movement.
the visual pattern formed by a regularly textured surface that extends away from the observer. this pattern provides information for distance because the elements appear smaller as distance from the observer increases.
visual direction strategy
a strategy used by moving observers to reach a destination by keeping their body orient toward the target.
visual dominant neuron
neuron in the monkey's anterior intraparietal cortex that responds when a monkey looks at a button or presses the button in the light but does not respond to pushing the button in the dark.
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